This scale was developed as a basic screening measure for depression in older adults. We will consider this page to be under continuous development and try to keep translations of the scale available. Anyone with their own translation can submit it to me and we'll post it- when I get the chance given other responsibilites etc., etc.....
Questions cheerfully answered if one makes a donation to my favorite charity (California Trout) by purchasing a special publication: donation
The original scale is in the public domain due to it being partly the result of Federal support. Neither I nor Dr. Brink keep up on every nuance of the scale but we try to answer questions as work permits, and especially if you donate to Dr. Yesavage's favorite charity.
VERY VERY NEW: We now have a FREE iPhone APP that allows you to do the 15-item GDS on your iPhone and automatically calculate the results. We provide no intepretation of results, but you all know that patients with scores higher than 5 should be interviewed carefully. This service is provided to you by Dr. Yesavage of VA Palo Alto Health Care System: iPhone Page.
VERY NEW: We now have a FREE ANDROID APP that allows you to do the 15-item GDS on your phone and automatically calculate the results. We provide no intepretation of results, but you all know that patients with scores higher than 5 should be interviewed carefully: Android Page.
This app is also available through the Android Marketplace or iTunes stores on your phones.
NEW: We now have a great new page that allows you to do the 15-item GDS on the screen and copy the results down into your records. We provide no intepretation of results, but positive answers are highlighted for clinical follow-up. This service is provided to you by Drs. Wes Ashford and Anil Sharma of VA Palo Alto Health Care System: Testing Page.
The basic references are:
Brink TL, Yesavage JA, Lum O, Heersema P, Adey MB, Rose TL: Screening tests for geriatric depression. Clinical Gerontologist 1: 37-44, 1982.
Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey MB, Leirer VO: Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17: 37-49, 1983.
Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA: Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontology : A Guide to Assessment and Intervention 165-173, NY: The Haworth Press, 1986.
Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA, Brooks JO, III, Friedman LF, Gratzinger P, Hill RD, Zadeik A, Crook T: Proposed factor structure of the Geriatric Depression Scale. International Psychogeriatrics 3: 23-28, 1991.
Available Translations (And Disclaimer):
Neither the ACRC or Dr. Yesavage can vouch for the accuracy of any of the following translations. Clearly I do not speak Korean. However, most have come from major institutions and have been used in clinical practice. Where I have kept track of the authors, I provide their location. For those whose name and address I have lost, please mail me and I will update the form- sorry. We have several translations in some languages and when we are able will publish more than one translation so that potential users may select according to their needs- in many cases nuances of dialect may play an important role in assessing depression across cultures.
Note that they come in various formats: text, html or .gif files. Text files can be downloaded and used right in documents. Html is really like text as it can be copied from a browser into a text file and edited. Gif files are image files and are larger than text files. They cannot be edited but preserve the punctuation of the translation not easy to present on a typically endowed server. I note that the latest versions of Word (2000) have facilitated the translation of many fonts into html.
Those submitting forms to post will see that happening most rapidly if a text format is submitted, especially a Word file, and least rapidly if hard paper is submitted.
If say 3 of 15 items missed, and total score is 4 on the 12 completed items, add 4/12 of the 3 missing points or 1 point for a total score of 4+1 = 5.
If this is unclear, we are solving the equation: 4/12 = X/15... so X = 5.
I have been asked how many missing items would I count as sufficient to invalidate the scale. My guess would be more than 5 missing, but this should be taken on advisement as it appears that probably just a couple of items might do pretty well at identifying depression....
Finally, if this calculation results in a fraction, I would "round up" to a higher depression score. I think this is safest since the GDS is really a screening measure and it is better to score positively and launch an evaluation rather than miss someone who might be depressed (and possibly suicidal). Thus the risk of a false negative is less than a false positive.
Suggestion by Dr. Rita Hargrave is to use a point-board, or a board with the scale and yes/no next to the items and have patient point out correct answer.
Short Form English
Short Form English Scoring
Long Form English with Scoring
Informant Version English and Spanish in .htm format from Lisa M. Brown, Ph.D, Department of Aging and Mental Health Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute University of South Florida (article).
Arab Version in .htm format From Samira Nicolas.
Chinese Version in .gif format from Dr. Hing-chu B. Lee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong in the Clinical Gerontologist.
Chinese Version in .gif format source unknown.
Chinese Version in .gif format from Sandy Chen Stokes, John XXIII Multi-Service Center, 195E San Fernando Street, San Jose Ca 95112.
Creole Version in .htm format From Susan Daugherty,
Danish Version in .gif format from Drs. Black, Auebeck and Mogensen in the Clinical Gerontologist.
Dutch Version in .gif format source unknown.
Dutch Version in .htm format From Robert M. Kok: "I have done some research on the Dutch translation on the GDS some years ago, the results were published in the Journal of Affective Disorders 1995, vol 33, 77-82. I used however a different translation than the one published on your webpage. Also HM van Marwijk, cited in your Medline search, used the same translation as I did (we have worked together on his Ph.D.). The translation we both used is the official Dutch translation by Bleeker, Frohn de Winter and Cornellissen (1985). "
Farsi Versions in .pdf format from Dr. Robab Sahaf, Assistant Professor of the Iranian Resech Centre on Ageing, Rofeideh Rehabilitation Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Koodakyar Ave, Daneshjoo Blvd, Velenjak, Tehran, Iran firstname.lastname@example.org .
French Version in .gif format from Dr. Lilian Israel, Professor of Psychology and Gerontology, Genoble. Circa 1990s.
French Version in .gif format possibly from Dr. Michel Allard, IPSEN Pharmaceuticals, Paris, France.
French Canadian Version in .html format From Yves Lacasse MD, MSc Centre de Pneumologie Hopital Laval 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy Ste-Foy, P. Quebec. Not a perfect reproduction of a table, but adequate to get the translation. Help on this page appreciated.
German Version in .gif format from Dr. Peter Schett, University Clinic Innsbruck, Austria.
Greek Version in Word format for Mac .hqx from Dr Alexis Benos of Medical Dept, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki P.O.Box 1689 54006 Thessaloniki Greece. Note, I do not have the right font for this and it only seems to work on my Mac. Have had difficulty creating a PC version. Help on this page appreciated.
Greek Version in .html format from K.N. Fountoulakis, M Tsolaki, A. Iacovides, J. Yesavage, R O'Hara, A Kazis and C Ierodiakonou. Page created by Elias Pavlopoulos Network Administrator of Medecins Sans Frontieres Greece who provides technical information on the use of Greek fonts.
Hebrew Version in .gif format source unknown.
Hebrew Version in .gif format From Dr. Gil Zalsman, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Israel.
Hindi Version in .jpg format From from Mary Ganguli MD MPH, Professor of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, Division of Geriatrics and Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O?Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2593.
Hungarian Version in .gif format From Dr. Janos Balog of Palm Springs California, USA.
Hungarian Version in .html format with proper characters from Zalaegerszeg, Hungary and Istvan Miklos, Nagy, MD.
Icelandic Version in .html format with proper characters from Drs. Margret Valdimarsdottir, Jon Eyjolfur Jonsson and Kristinn Tomasson, Landspitalinn, Iceland.
Indonesian Version in .docx format from Karel Karsten of Indonesia.
Irish Version in .docx format from Louise Barry at St Itas Community Hospital in Newcastle West Co. Limerick Ireland.
Italian Version in .gif format from Dr. Fabiano Vavarzeran of FIDIA Pharmaceurticals, Italy and Dr. Thomas Crook of Memory Assessment Clinics, 8311 Wisconsin Avenue #6, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Japanese Version in .gif format from Drs. Niino, Imazumi and Kawakami in the Clinical Gerontologist.
Japanese Version in .gif format Second version- source unknown.
Korean Version in .gif format Long Form from Dr. Pang in the Clinical Gerontologist.
Korean Version in .gif format Short Form from Yuri Jang, Ph.D.Department of Aging and Mental Health University of South Florida 13301 Bruce B. Downs Blvd.Tampa, FL 33612
Latvian Version in .docx format from Dr. Vladimirs V. Voicehovskis MD PhD, Ass. Professor of Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.
Lithuania Version in .html format with proper Lithuanian characters from Dr.Robertas Bunevicius Institute of Endocrinology Eiveniu 2 LT-3007 Kaunas, Lithuania.
Malay Version in .html format from Dr.Hasanah Che Ismail, Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Malay Version in .html format from Dr. Tengku Aizan Hamid, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia (See note about two Malay translations).
Maltse Version in .html format from Dr Eleanor Gerada; Senior House Officer in General Medicine from St Luke's Hospital Malta with the help of Dr Peter Ferry.
Norwegian Long Version in .html format from Norwegian Short Version in .html format from Håkon Berget of the University of Tromsø, Norway.
Portuguese Version in .gif format from Dr. A Zilenovski, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Portuguese Version in .gif format from Dr. Carla Fromuller, Faculdade de Medicina de Vassouras, Brazil.
Portuguese Version in .doc format source João Apóstolo, RN, PhD, Health Sciences Research Unit: Nursing, Coimbra Nursing School 3046-851 Coimbra - Portugal, translated and back-translated in 2011 (apostolo.joao at gmail.com).
Rumanian Version in .gif format source unknown.
Long Rumanian Version in .doc format and Short Rumanian Version in .doc format source Sorina Negrila.
Russian Version in .gif format source unknown.
Russian Ukrainian Version in .html format from Litvinov V.B. Ph.D. Doctor of Medical sciences, Homenko A.A. M.D., Lutchmun N. M.D., Ukrainian Research Institute of Social, Forensic Psychiatry and Substance Abuse, C/o Ukrainian Psychiatric Association, 103A. Frunze street., Kiev 80. Ukraine.
Serbian Versions in .doc format from Emilija Dubljanin Raspopovic, MD, Clinical Center of Serbia,Clinics for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Belgrade, Serbia.
Spanish in text format Original Spanish translation by Terry Brink circa 1985 using Mexican idiom (30-item).
Spanish in text format Spanish translation by Dr. Alberto Sosa Alvarez circa 1996 from Montevideo, Uruguay (30-item) E-mail to Dr. Sosa.
Spanish Version in .gif format from Dr. Marc Cantillion and has been used in Latin American populations primarily based (I believe) from idiom as used in Miami (15-item).
Spanish Version in .gif format from Dr. Felipe Gonzalez of Madrid and has been used in Spain. He has written about its use in Psycogeriatria volume IV (5) 235-240, 1988 (15-item).
Spanish Version in .html format from Alexandra Marie Velasquez from El Salvador with assistance of Rafael Gochez and Sonia Marie Velasquez circa 1998 (15-item and 30-item).
Spanish Version in .html format from Drs. Jorge Martinez de la Iglesia, Carmen Onis Vilches, Carmen Albert Colomer, Rosa Duenas Herrero and Rogelio Luque Luque from Spain following Fillembaum criteria with backtranslations circa 1998 (15-item) E-mail to Dr. Colomer.
Swedish Version in text format GDS-skalan modifierad av CG Gottfries och I Karlsson, Psykiatriska kliniken, Mölndals sjukhus, Göteborgs universitet, 1995.
Thai Version in .gif format from Drs. Nivataphand, Phattharayuttawat and Sangsanguan of the Faculty of Medicine of Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330.
Thai Version in .pdf format from Nahathai Wongpakaran, MD, FRCPsychT, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University 110 Intawaroros Rd., Chiang Mai, Kingdom of Thailand 50200
1. Wongpakaran T, Wongpakaran N. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the Geriatric Depression Scale-15. Int Psychogeriatr. 2011;23(Suppl 1):S317-8.
2. Wongpakaran N, Wongpakaran T. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and suicide in long-term care facilities: A report from northern Thailand. Psychogeriatrics. 2012;12(1):11-7.
3. Wongpakaran N, Wongpakaran T, van Reekum R. The use of GDS-15 in detecting MDD: A comparison between residents in a Thai long-term care home and geriatric outpatients. J Clin Med Res 2013;5(2):101-111.
Turkish Version in .gif format or in .html format from Associate Prof. Dr. Turan Ertan of the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School E-mail to Dr. Ertan.
Vietnamese Version in .gif format from the staff at the San Jose Medical Clinic in San Jose California.
Welsh Version in .pdf format from and Welsh Validation Study in .pdf format from Heledd Owen, Welsh Version in .pdf format and Welsh Validation Study in .pdf format from LLAIS, Language Awareness Infrastructure Support Service, School of Healthcare Sciences, Bangor University, North Wales. www.llais.org.
Vietnamese Version in .html format from Camhong Tran, BSN, RN, PHN, Nurse Practitioner Masters Student, Nursing Department at San Jose State University.
Yiddish Version in .gif format source unknown.
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