British & Commonwealth History
Submitted by jrjacobs@stanfo... on Mon, 04/12/2010 - 08:18.
Irish President Mary Robinson will speak tonight (monday April 12) at 7PM at Cubberley Auditorium (map). Her talk, entitled "Human Rights Strategies in the 21st Century," is this year's Stanford Presidential Lecture in the Humanities and Arts. Yours truly wrote the essay "Free and Equal in Dignity and Rights: The Life and Work of Mary Robinson" outlining Robinson's long involvement with human rights issues around the world. I hope you can make it this evening.
Submitted by email@example.com on Wed, 01/21/2009 - 11:52.
For this period of Parliament's history, there was no official record of debates, but there were a variety of private transcripts made, with some printed commercially, recording debates in a non-systematic way.
Some of the collections of Commons debates that Stanford owns are kept in the British Documents collection in Green Library, West Wing, Level 2.
Looking in one of those, called William Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England, Vol. XVII, A.D. 1771-1774, one finds a debate on March 23, 1774 on "the Boston Port Bill," which gives the exact version of the speech as you cite it:
"Mr. Van said, he agreed to the flagitiousness of the offence in the Americans, and therefore was of opinion, that the town of Boston ought to be knocked about their ears, and destroyed. Delenda est Carthago: said he, I am of opinion you will never meet with that proper obedience to the laws of this country, until you have destroyed that nest of locusts" (p. 1178)
Oxford University is working on a digital version of Cobbett's History. It doesn't yet do full text searching, but the volumes are all there.
Interestingly, a similar, yet slightly variant account is found in volume IV of R.C. Simmons' and P.D.G. Thomas's Proceedings and Debates of the British Parliaments Respecting North America, January to May, 1774, V. 4.
In their account, which is also based on several manuscript diaries, Van is recorded as saying [and there are gaps, indicated by punctuation]:
"If they block up the harbour I would say Delenda est Carthago. That the English army should not trespass over that rebel town. Make it a mark that shall never be restored. They bring an odium upon themselves whichever part they take .... Impress the Americans. 'That was the town.' Now destroy them if ever you fear a single ball against it. Demolish it, that is my opinion. Delenda est Carthago."
The next speaker, Col. Barré refers back to Van's speech, citing Van as saying "Delenda est Carthago. If you fear a single shot you had better annihilate that rebel town".
So, locusts notwithstanding, that Van said "Delenda est Carthago" seems certain.
As to Van, One looks in The History of Parliament volume called The House of Commons, 1754-1790 for Van's biography.
Van was Charles Van (d. 3 April 1778) of Llanwern, Monmouthshire. It notes that "he was an extreme anti-American and carried his support of British authority to an absurd extent." Apparently, in a speech on 15 April, 1774 "he advocated setting on fire the forests of Massachusetts to facilitate punitive operations." This volumes records a speech on February 4, 1778, which is not cited in the Cobbett or Simmons/Thomas, but in some other contemporary editions of debates cited in the entry biographical entry. The entry of the speech:
"Mr. Van in a long speech caused much mirth in the beginning, and entertained the house with a long comparison between Britain and Rome, America and Carthage, and concluded with asserting that whatever Opposition might be individually without, they were as a party rank idiots within doors. He compared some of their leaders to Hannibal and predicted their fate to be similar to that famous general's, who vowed to the destruction of Rome and fell in the impious attempt."
So we have three variants of this speech, with various dates. It would appear that Mr. Van gave versions of his speech on more than one occasion.
Submitted by firstname.lastname@example.org on Sun, 01/04/2009 - 14:22.
Is there a database or compilation that lists all countries that are former colonies of a European nation?
There is an encyclopedia in the Information Center, Colonialism: an international, social, cultural, and political encyclopedia, with chronologies, lists, and documentation. There is also a good Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism in the Information Center with two useful Appendices, one listing all the former colonies and their languages, and one giving a chronology. There is also a similar list on Wikipedia, which is pretty good if you just want a simple list broken down by region.
Submitted by email@example.com on Sat, 01/03/2009 - 18:47.
I am looking for historical data about levels of foreign direct investment, particularly investments made by the various colonial powers in their colonies.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is collected in many places and by many government agencies, primarily the US Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the World Bank, and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). For the historical data, you'll want to use Direction of Trade Statistics Historical (1948-1980) available on CDROM in Data Services in the Velma Denning Room on the first floor of Green.
Here are some other routes to explore:
For U.S. sources, try the following:
One final note: If you go back into colonial history much before 1945, the concept of Foreign Direct Investment doesn't really apply as a form of statistical analysis. However, there is a large body of scholarly work on the economics of colonies. A general Subject keyword search of Socrates for "economic" and "colonies" yields many books about the economic history of imperialism and colonialism, plus monographs on specific colonies of the various European powers.