of standards-based reform goes back to the educational philosophies of Benjamin
Bloom, through his 1956 work "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives." In
his work, Bloom discusses the importance of requiring students to develop "higher-order
thinking skills," which was a movement away from rote memorized learning.
The philosophies of Bloom were a driving force in the first uprising of standards-based
reform, then called "Outcome Based Reform" ( OBE). Critics of OBE were
dismayed by the non-definitive word "outcome," and it was soon changed to the
current term, "Standards-Based Reform."
reform first gained momentum in 1983, during the Reagan era, with the federal
educational goals and objectives highlighted in "Nation at Risk."
This federal interest in reforming education lasted through the Bush ("America
2000") and Clinton eras, and is currently known as "Goals 2000."
The standards-based reform movement is currently employed by the following
states: California, Colorado, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas,
following are links that provide general information about the history
of standards-based reform:
Content Standards: Creating a Process for Change
- This site highlights suggestions for
how to implement standards-based reform through the lessons of five different
state processes. Click here to learn about the past and current efforts
to develop state standards of education.
A Critical Summary
- This site is a review of the political
history regarding standards-based reform, starting from the Reagan era with
"Nation at Risk" (1983) and concluding with the Clinton era's "Goals 2000."
It highlights the educational movements stemming from the federal government.
The main national leaders in reform are mentioned, from Marc Tucker to William
Spady. This is an excellent site--short, with a great overview of the
key players and issues!
Legislation and Related Items
- This is a great site! You can
find many links here to "Goals 2000" related issues. One link in particular,
"Misconceptions about GOALS 2000," effectively lists and responds
to frequent misconceptions about federal reform. You may also link to
thirteen states and learn about how they are addressing GOALS 2000 in their
Statewide Student Accountability Standards: The New Standards at a Glance
- This site describes the new standards
in North Carolina. The authors explain that they will ensure that students
are working at grade level in reading, writing, and mathematics before being
promoted to the next grade. For high school graduation, students will need
a passing score on a new exit exam of essential skills. These standards
were developed over a six-year period in response to the public's demand for
better schools in North Carolina. This page also explains review procedures,
local accountability procedures, and policies for students with disabilities
and students of limited English proficiency.
© 2000, Education 388A, Stanford University