Sabia virus is a member of the Arenavirus family, of the New World group, and it was isolated from a fatal case of hemorrhagic fever in 1990 in Sao Paulo Brazil. Because of extensive liver necrosis, it was often mistaken for yellow fever. The virus infected a virologist at Yale in 1994 when he broke a test tube with a sample of the virus over a centrifuge. After an 8-day incubation period, his symptoms included myalgias, a mild headache, a stiff neck, and fever. He had a prolonged course with hemorrhagic symptoms. It was transmitted to him by aerosolized dropets in the lab due to the high-speed centrifugation of a sample of the virus. He was put on ribavirin and recovered. The natural reservoir remains unknown, although it is suspected that it to be a rodent found near the small community of Sabia outside of San Paulo Brazil. It is assumed that it has a high morbidity and mortality. Hepatocellular damage and hepatitis have been described with Sabi‡ virus and other arenaviruses
High morbidity and mortality. An Ace!
Enjoy a bout of Brazilian hemorrhagic fever
Humans usually become infected by drawing a contaminated rodent excreta card.
Likes to replicate in the liver.
Causes necrosis in liver, kidney, adrenal cortex, and lymphoid tissue.
Causes hemorrhagic fever and thrombocytopenia by increasing levels of interferons which arrest maturation of megakaryocytes.
gradual onset of fever and myalgia, followed by systemic and hematopoietic cell abnormalities. Hemorrhagic fever.
8 day incubation period.
Don't hang out in rodent infested areas in Sao Paulo Brazil
Don't centrifuge tubes full of Sabia virus and the breath in deeply.
Biosafety suit: You need to recognize the risk of occupational exposure to Sabi‡ virus by aerosol. Although standard universal precautions may be adequate to prevent spread, additional biosafety precautions should be considered when one is dealing with arenaviruses and other dangerous viruses whose mechanisms of transmission are sketchy.
NO vaccine because the virus is very rare. No card will save you.
If you landed with hemorrhagic fever, get your hands on some opiates, it's gonna hurt! Make sure your hydrated and try to draw a platelet tansfusions if you can.
Antivirals are effective, especially guanosine analog ribavirin.
If you get this card, look to see if you have an antiviral card. If you do, use it! If you don't, hope you draw one by the next two times around because if you don't, you're out of the game with hemorrhagic fever.
"Don't centrifuge tubes full of Sabia virus and the breath in deeply"
"You may think you got da flu,
but you been playin w/rodent pu,
your about to be bumbing
hemorrhagic fever is coming,
and there aint much aspirin can do"
A newly evolved Flavivirus that emerged in 1975 in an epidemic of encephalitis in Brazil, in the Satista lowlands just South of Sao Paulo in the Ribeira Valley and caused an epidemic that persisted over a 2 year period from 1975-76. It is presumed that the transmission cycle involves wild and possibly domestic birds as a viremic host, as the virus was isolated from two sentinel mice exposed in the epidemic zone and from a rufous collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) collected in the area. Mosquitos, primarily Aedes Scapularis are the main vector. Humans who were infected became ill with encephalitis. There were about 1,000 cases of which about 10% were fatal, but humans did not take part in perpetuating the transmission cycle. This is a human disease.
A hypothesized explanation for its sudden appearance is that it is a mutated strain of Ilheus virus.
Rapidly developing, disabling, killing, and poorly characterized
Homes in on the brain. Attacks the thalamus, dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, hypothalamic nuclei, and substantia nigra.
Persistent cerebellar, motor, and and neuropsuchiatric signs in 20% of survivors.
Fast! The disease could develop rapidly with patients dying within 5 days of symptoms first appearing.
The disease appears to have virtually disappeared. Relax and enjoy, this is truly a rare card in the deck.
When it was around, the highest incidence seen was in young adults working outdoors in impoverished agricultural areas.
Go for the antivirals and the pain killers, this won't be pleasant.
Responds well to typical encephalitis treatment such as antivirals, antiseizure medications, steroids to reduce brain swelling, acetaminophen to treat headache and fever, and supportive care such as rest, nutrition, fluids help the body to fight the infection.
Out of luck. A mouse brain vaccine lacked potency. No political drive or popular demand for the development of a vaccine because the virus seems to be gone.
Speed! This card acts fast as patients often die within 5 days of first symptoms. However, it's a rare card so odds are good you wonÕt see in a hundred games you play.
"It used to destroy your brain,
but lately its presence did wane."
Nipah is a member of the Henipaviruses within the Paramyxovirus family and it was first isolated in 1999 in Malaysia. It resulted in encephalitis which ended up killing more than 110 people. It is a zoonosis that is linked to contact with pigs. Apparently you can actually hear the pigs cough when they are infected with the virus. The discovery that Nipah is linked to these pigs resulted in a large scale slaughtering of the pig stocks which was devastating tot he economy. This action, however, did effectively stop the epidemic. It has 82% homologous genome in common with Hendra, another Paramyxovirus. It is not easily passed from one human to another. Nipah is a novel viruses found in bats in Australia and Malaysia, particularly from fruit bats belonging to the genus Pteropus (flying foxes).
Highly lethal and able to jump species barriers very well (eg horses, pigs, birds, humans)
Attacks blood vessels and causes encephalitis. Pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central nervous system.
Transmitted by drawing a card with infectious bat or pig droppings.
In many cases the infection is mild or inapparent (sub-clinical). In symptomatic cases, the onset is usually with influenza-like symptoms, with high fever and muscle pains. The disease may progress to inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) with drowsiness, disorientation, convulsions and coma. 50% percent of clinically apparent cases die.
The incubation period is between 4 and 18 days
Purge all pig cards and don't play with bat poo! Minimize disease exposure with good farm management practices, reducing the potential for exposure to flying foxes, and better disease recognition and diagnosis,
No drug therapies have yet been proven to be effective in treating an infection with the Nipah virus. For now intensive supportive care is the main treatment. There is some evidence that early treatment with the antiviral drug, ribavirin, can reduce both the duration of feverish illness and the severity of disease, but this is still not certain.
You can actually use a rabies vaccine card against this opponent for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Finally, it is possible that a plant-derived Nipah vaccination will be coming soon, look out for that card in the future, it will be worth a lot against this highly lethal opponent. For details, look below.
Future Nipah Vaccine
There's no cure for Nipah, but a vaccine is in development. In the January issue of the Journal of Virology, French and Malaysian researchers reported that vaccinia viruses, engineered to express either one of two Nipah's surface glycoproteins, protected golden hamsters from a lethal challenge of Nipah. Because antibodies against Nipah and Hendra cross-react, Pasteur Institute senior virologist Vincent Deubel says he's "quite confident" that the vaccine would also protect against the Bangladesh virus.
Pulled a Nipah card? There isn't a Nipah vaccine card yet, but if you pull a rabies vaccine card after the fact you can still use it as protection, and get another turn for being so resourceful.
"If you got Nipah and you know it kill your pigs,
If you got Nipah and you know it kill your pigs,
If youÕve got Nipah and you know it
Then your brain might surely show it
If youÕve got Nipah and you know it Kill your pigs"