Wnt Target genes

This is a list of target genes of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Suggestions for additions are welcome.

There are a separate lists of papers on expression profiling (micro-arrays) on Wnt targets and on target genes that are components of the Wnt pathway (feedback targets).

Direct targets are defined as those with Tcf binding sites and demonstrating that these sites are important.

 Gene

 Organism/system

 Direct/Indirect

 up/down

 Ref.

c-myc human colon cancer yes up He 1998
n-myc mesenchyme limbs
up Ten Berge 2008
Cyclin D human colon cancer yes up
Tetsu 1999
Shtutman 1999
Disputed by Sansom, 2005
Tcf-1 human colon cancer yes up Roose 1999
LEF1 human colon cancer  yes up Hovanes, 2001

Filali 2002

PPARdelta human colon cancer yes up He TC, et al 1999
c-jun human colon cancer yes up Mann B, 1999
fra-1 human colon cancer yes up Mann B, 1999
uPAR human colon cancer ? up Mann B, 1999
matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7 human colon cancer yes up
Brabletz 1999
Crawford 1999
Axin-2 human colon cancer yes up
Yan, 2001
Lustig, 2002
Jho, 2002
Nr-CAM human colon cancer yes up Conacci-Sorrell 2002
ITF-2 human colon cancer yes up Kolligs, 2002
Gastrin human colon cancer ? up Koh, 2000
CD44 human colon cancer ? up Wielenga 1999
EphB/ephrin-B human colon cancer ? up/down Batlle, 2002
BMP4 human colon cancer ? up Kim 2002
claudin-1 human colon cancer yes up Miwa 2002
Survivin human colon cancer
up Zhang, 2001
VEGF human colon cancer yes up Zhang, 2001
FGF18 human colon cancer yes up Shimokawa 2003
Hath1 human colon cancer .. down Leow 2004
Met human colon cancer
up Boon 2002
endothelin-1 human colon cancer
up Kim 2004
c-myc binding protein human colon cancer yes up Jung 2005
L1 neural adhesion human colon cancer
up Gavert 2005
Id2 human colon cancer yes up Rockman 2001

Willert 2002

Jagged human colon cancer
up Rodilla, 2009
Msl1human colon cancer upSpears, 2011
Tiam1 Colon tumors

Malliri 2005
Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 Hepg2 cells
up Du, 2006
TelomeraseES, other stemyesupHoffmyer, 2012
Dickkopf Various cells, tumors
up
Niida. 2004
Gonzalez-Sancho 2004
Chamorro 2004
FGF9 ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma
up Hendrix, 2006LB
LBH
breast cancer up
FGF20 Various cells, tumors

Chamorro 2004
LGR5/GPR49 Intestine yes up Barker, 2007
Sox9 Intestine
up Blache 2004
Sox9 mesenchyme
down
Hill, 2005
Day 2005
Yano, 2005
Sox17 gastrointestinal tumors
up Du, 2009
Runx2 chondrocytes
up Dong 2006
Gremlin fibroblasts
up Klapholz-Brown 2007
SALL4


Bohm, 2006
RANK ligand Osteoblasts
down Spencer 2006
OsteoprotegerinOsteoblasts upGlass, 2005
CCN1/Cyr61 Osteoblasts
up Si, 2006
Sox2 Xenopus retina
up Van Raay, 2005
Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Zhou 2004
Delta-like 1 somites

Galceran, 2004
Hofmann 2004
FoxN1 thymus ? yes Balciunaite 2002
matrix metalloproteinase-26 Human

Marchenko 2002
nanog ES

Pereira, 2006

Cole 2008

Oct 4 ES
up Cole 2008
snail ES/EB
up Ten Berge 2008
Fibronectin ES/EB
up Ten Berge 2008
Frizzled 7 EC cells yes up Willert 2002
Follistatin EC cells, ovary yes up Willert 2002

Yao 2004

Wnt3a EC cells

Zhang 2009
Fibronectin Mouse lung
up De Langhe 2005
Islet1 Cardiac cells
up Lin 2007
MMP2, MMP9 T cells

Wu 2007
Siamois Xenopus yes up Brannon 1997
fibronectin Xenopus yes up Gradl 1999
BMP4 Xenopus ?  down Baker 1999
myogenic bHLH Xenopus ? up Munsterberg 1995
engrailed-2 Xenopus yes up McGrew 1999
Xnr3 Xenopus yes up McKendry 1997
connexin43 Xenopus, Mouse yes up van der Heyden 1999
twin Xenopus yes up Laurent 1997
connexin 30 Xenopus ?   McGrew 1999
retinoic acid receptor gamma Xenopus ?   McGrew 1999
dharma/bozozok Zebrafish yes up Ryu 2001
MITF/nacre Zebrafish yes up
Dorsky, 2000
Saito 2002
Yasumoto 2002
Stra6 Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells ?

co-induced by Wnt plus RA

up Szeto 2001
Wrch-1 Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells ?

Not through TCF

up Tao, 2001
TNF family 41BB ligand, ephrinB1, Stra6, autotaxin and ISLR Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells By Wnt plus retinoic acid up Tice 2002
Twist Wnt1 induced mammary cancer
up Howe, 2003
Stromelysin Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells
up Prieve, 2003
WISP Wnt-1 transformed mouse cells yes, but not through TCF (Xu, 2000) up
Xu, 2000
Brachyury  Mouse (Wnt-3A)  yes up
Yamaguchi 1999
Arnold 2000
Proglucagon Mouse ? up Ni 2003
Osteocalcin Mouse yes down Kahler 2003
Cdx1 Mouse embryo

Pilon 2007
cyclooxygenase-2 mouse (Wnt-1) ? up
Howe 1999
Haertel-Wiesmann 2000
Irx3 and Six3 Mouse brain

Braun 2003
neurogenin 1 Mouse brain yes up Hirabayashi 2004
SP5 Mouse brain yes up Weidinger 2005

Fujimura 2007

NeuroD1 Mouse Brain yes up Kuwabara 2009
Nkx2.2 Neural tube yes down Lei, 2006
Gbx2 Neural Crest yes up Li, 2009
Cacna1gNeuron upWisniewska 2010
WISP-1, WISP-2, IGF-II , Proliferin-2, Proliferin-3, Emp, IGF-I, VEGF-C, MDR1, COX-2, IL-6
3T3-L1 Preadipocytes ? up Longo, 2002
periostin Mouse Wnt-3 not through b-catenin? down  Haertel-Wiesmann 2000
Cdx1 Mouse Wnt-3A yes up  Lickert 2000
Cdx4 Mouse Wnt-3A

Pilon, 2006
Cdx4 Zebrafish HSC ? up Davidson 2003
betaTrCP   Independent of transcription up  Spiegelman 2000
sFRP-2 Mouse (Wnt-4) ? up Lescher 1998
Pitx2 pituitary yes up Kioussi 2002
EGF receptor Liver
up Tan 2005
Eda (TNF-related) Mouse hair follicle ? up Laurikkala 2002

Durmowicz 2002

E-cadherin Mouse hair follicle yes down Jamora, 2003
E-cadherin ES/EB
down Ten Berge 2008
Keratin Mouse hair follicle yes up Dasgupta 1999
movo1 Mouse hair follicle yes up Li, 2002
Jagged1 Mouse hair follicle
up Estrach, 2006
P16ink4A Melanocytes yes down Delmas, 2007
CTLA-4 Melanomas yes up Shah 2008
mBTEB2  Mouse Independent β-catenin up Ziemer 2001
FGF4 Mouse tooth bud yes up Kratochwil 2002
Interleukin8 Endothelial cells

Masckauchan 2005
ret rat PC12 ? up Zheng, 1996
connexin43 rat cardiomyocytes ? up Ai 2000
versican vascular smooth muscle cells yes up Rahmani 2005
Tnfrsf19 Somitic mesoderm yes up Buttitta 2003
Ubx Drosophila yes up or down Riese 1997
wingless Drosophila ? up or down Yu 1998
Dpp Drosophila yes down Yang, 2000
Engrailed Drosophila ? up Hooper 1994
Dfrizzled2 Drosophila ? down Cadigan 1998
shavenbaby Drosophila ? down Payre 1999
stripe Drosophila yes down Piepenburg 2000
Nemo Drosophila
up Zeng , 2004