Abu Sayyaf

Formed1991
DisbandedGroup is active.
First AttackApril 4, 1991: April 4, 1991: The ASG carried out a grenade attack on Zamboanga City, killing 2 evangelical Americans. (2 killed) [1]
Last AttackJune 22, 2013: June 22, 2013: Abu Sayyaf members kidnapped Al-Rashid Maha Rojas, a researcher at Western Mindanao State University from his residence in Zamboanga. After the alleged payment of ransom, Rojas was freed unharmed in Sulu province. (0 killed) [2]
UpdatedAugust 6, 2013

Narrative Summary

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) is an Islamic separatist group based in the Southern Philippines vying for an independent Muslim homeland in the Bangsamoro region. The ASG has carried out high-profile assassinations and large-scale bombings to achieve this goal, developing a reputation of being one of the most violent Islamic separatist groups in the Philippines.

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) was founded by Abdurajak Abubaker Janjalani, who was educated by the Al Islamic Tabligh, a fundamentalist organization funded by Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. Janjalani allegedly became radicalized after studying and traveling in various Muslim countries.  He is believed to have met with Osama bin Laden in 1988, after which he developed his  mission to transform the southern Philippines into an Islamic State. [3]

 
After returning from the Middle East, Janjalani was able to recruit disappointed Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) members, most of whom held more radical views on how to secure the Muslim state. [4] The ASG benefited from the dire economic conditions in the Philippines at the time, allowing the group to recruit new members who had relatively poorer alternatives.[5] 

The group turned to violence to gain recognition and has shown little inclination towards peaceful negotiations with the Philippine government.

Leadership

The group's leadership is currently fragmented, especially following the deaths of several of the group's key leaders in 2006-2007. Currently, it is unknown whether one key figure leads ASG. Many of Abu Sayyaf's leaders, however, have extensive operational experience and carry out their own operations. [6] 

  


  1. Radulan Sahiron (Unknown to Unknown): Also known as Commander Putol, Radulan Sahirun, Radulan Sajirun, Sahiron was the leader of ASG until his reported murder in December 2008.[7]
  2. Isnilon Totoni Hapilon (aka Abu Musab, Sol, Abu Tuan, Esnilon, Salahudin, The Deputy) (Unknown to Unknown): Second in command of ASG. Hapilon is wanted for kidnappings, killings, and hostage takings.[8]
  3. Abdul Basit Usman (Unknown to Unknown): ASG bomb-making expert with a $1 million U.S. bounty. [9]
  4. Gumbahali Jumdail (aka Doc Abu) (Unknown to Unknown): A Filipino regional leader wanted for multiple kidnappings. [10]
  5. Abdul Basir Latip (Unknown to Unknown): A key leader of ASG who has linked ASG to al-Qaeda, Jeemah Islamiah and other islamic militant groups.[11]
  6. Abdurrajak Abubaker Janjalani (Unknown to 1998): Founder of ASG, died in a police shootout.[12]
  7. Galib Andang (aka Commander Robot) (Unknown to 2003): Accused of leading the kidnapping of Western tourists and Asian workers in Malaysia in the year 2000. Three years later, Andang was captured in a gun battle.[13]
  8. Alhamser Limbong (aka Commander Kosovo) (Unknown to 2004): Involved in the kidnapping of Chinese, American and Filipino tourists on the island of Palawan (one of the American men who was kidnapped was later beheaded). He is also accused of bombing a ferry, killing 100 people.[14]
  9. Khadaffy Janjalani (Unknown to 2006): Killed in a fire fight.[15]
  10. Albader Parad (Unknown to 2010): ASG Senior Leader, killed by Philippine military in 2010.[16]
  11. Yasser Igasan (aka Kumander Diang) (2007 to Unknown): Current leader of ASG. [17]

Ideology & Goals

The ASG is a violent, Islamist group, influenced by Sunni and Salafi ideologies. It aims to strengthen the southern, Muslim regions in the Philippines, essentially creating an Islamic state governed by Shariah law. 


The ASG also aims to expel the Christian migrant settlers from Luzon and the Visayas. Starting in the second decade of the 20th century, Christians began to immigrate to Mindano, Sulu, and Palawan because of the encouragement of the American colonial government and, later, of the Philippine Republic. [18]. They now constitute 75% of the total population of the aforementioned regions, to the chagrin of the ASG. As a result, the ASG has been taking measures to force these settlers out of the Southern Philippines, especially after the U.S. publicly announced its support for Israel and the Christian influence in Basilan and Sulu. [19]            

The ASG's broader aims include a global Islamic revolution, which their affiliation to Al Qaeda and Jemmah Islamiyah (JI) have fostered. 

Name Changes

Janjalani named the group Abu Sayyaf in honor of Afghan resistance leader, Professor Abdul Rasul Sayyaf. [20]

Size Estimates

Designated/Listed

Abu Sayyaf is listed as a terrorist organization by a number of Western states, as well as on the United Nations' 1267 Committee's Consolidated List. [24] The United States government first listed Abu Sayyaf as a foreign terrorist organization on October 8, 1997. [25] The Australian government listed Abu Sayyaf as a terrorist group on November 14, 2002, and again in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2013. [26] ASG is also designated as a foreign terrorist group by Canada, the UK, and New Zealand. [27]


Resources

ASG has minimal support from Muslim and Muslim clerics in its region, and thus receives very little funding from local charities. [28]  In recent years, financing from foreign sources has declined and the group has turned to financing through criminal means. Besides kidnapping, which has made the group infamous, ASG members also cultivate marijuana for sale, as well as extort money from local businesses.


ASG has access to a wide array of weaponry. The Philippines serves as the major supply source and transit point for weapons and explosives provided to other radical Islamic groups in the region. The Infante Organization, a group that distributes drugs and smuggles weapons in the Philippines and other U.S. states is reported to have supplied weapons to the Abu Sayyaf. Additionally, Victor Blout, a weapons supplier to Al Qaeda, has also supplied arms to ASG in the past.  [29]

External Influences

In addition to the ASG's financial link to Al Qaeda through Mohammad Jamal Khalifa, a wealthy Saudi businessman and the brother-in-law of Osama bin Laden who is notorious for funding Islamic extremist movements around the world, the ASG is also influenced by individuals and organizations in Malaysia and Libya. It was reported that Libya's leader, Moammar Gadafi, was a key intermediary in certain joint ASG-Libya hostage operations. While Libya has officially condemned Abu Sayyaf kidnappings, reports indicate that Libyan money gets channeled to Abu Sayyaf. [30]




Geographical Locations

The ASG originated in the southern region of the Philippines, specifically in the Basilan province. The group may have begun expanding into Malaysia and Indonesia. [31] Today, ASG operates primarily in and around the Sulu Archipelago and on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The group also carries out certain operations in and around Manila. [32] In 2000, ASG members crossed the Sulu Sea to Malaysia to conduct a kidnapping. [33]  





Targets & Tactics

ASG has been known to use terrorist tactics such as assassinations, armed attacks, beheadings, high-profile bombings, business and individual monetary extortions, murder, robbery, and kidnappings. [34] ASG is notorious for kidnappings, and has conducted a number of kidnappings in Basila, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, and other areas of Western Mindanao. ASG targets a large variety of individuals, including Westerners, wealthy foreigners, local politicians, and civilians. [35]

 





Political Activities

Since August 2000, the Philippine government has put constant military pressure on ASG, deploying more than 1,500 troops to combat the group. Niksch, Larry. Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. Rep. CRS Report for Congress, 25 Jan. 2002. Web. Accessed 21 Aug. 2012. <http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31265.pdf>.

Major Attacks

  1. April 4, 1991: Launched a grenade in Zamboanga City. (2 killed).[36]
  2. April 14, 1995: Attacked the Christian town of Ipil. (53 killed, 30 hostages).[37]
  3. April 23, 2000: Abu Sayyaf gunmen attacked a Malaysian tourist resort in Sipadan. (0 killed, 21 hostages).[38]
  4. July 1, 2000: Kidnapped Filipino Christian Evangelists in the jungle region of Jolo. (0 killed, 13 hostages).[39]
  5. May 28, 2001: Abu Sayyaf gunmen raided the Dos Palmas resort. (0 killed, 20 hostages).[40]
  6. June 5, 2001: Gunfire between government troops and Abu Sayyaf members occurs in Mount Sinangkapan, Tubaran (Town). (16 killed, 44+ wounded).
  7. August 2002: Six Filipino Jehovah's Witnesses are kidnapped, 2 of whom are later beheaded. (2 killed).[41]
  8. March 4, 2003: A bomb exploded in a shed outside the main terminal building of the Davao International Airport. A spokesman for Abu Sayyaf called a national radio station the following day, claiming responsibility for the attack. It was the largest attack carried out by ASG since they dedicated themselves to jihad in 2002, complimenting decades of highly successful kidnapping-for-ransom tactics. (21 killed, 148 wounded).[42]
  9. February 4, 2004: A bomb placed in the lower decks of Superferry 14, a passenger ferry carrying 900 passengers out of Manila explodes, sinking the ship.  116 people were killed, making the bombing the Philippines' deadliest terrorist attack and the world's deadliest terrorist attack at sea. Abu Sayyaf claimed responsibility for the attack, which was confirmed by a subsequent government investigation. (116 killed).[43]
  10. February 27, 2004: Redondo Cain Dellosa, a Rajah Sulaiman Movement member, planted a bomb in his bunk on Super Ferry 14 out of Manila. The RSM is an off-shoot of ASG, who were responsible for the attacks (due to testimony from Dellosa following the attack). It is the worst terrorist attack ever at sea. (116 killed).[44]
  11. February 14, 2005: Three bombs are detonated by ASG operatives in Makati City, Davao City, and General Santos. They became known as the "Valentine's Day Bombings", due to the statement by ASG spokesmen Abu Solailman claiming the bombs were a "gift" to then-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. (8 killed, 96 wounded).[45]
  12. February 7, 2006: ASG gunmen knock on the door of a farm in Mindanao, asking whether the family inside is Christian or another religion. Among the dead is a 9-month old baby girl. (6 killed, 5 wounded).
  13. February 27, 2010: ASG militants kill one militiaman and 12 civilians in Maluso, Philippines. (13 killed).[46]
  14. December 5, 2011: The ASG kidnapped Warren Richard Rodwell, a 53 year old Australian retired soldier. Abu Sayyaf set the ransom at $2 million for his release in January 2012, but it is unknown whether the money has been transferred. As of June 2012, Rodwell's whereabouts have yet to be determined. (1 hostage).[47]
  15. February 1, 2012: ASG kidnapped a Swiss national, a Dutch national, and their Filipino guide off of the Tawi-Tawi islands. (3 hostages).[48]
  16. July 10, 2012: Suspected ASG militants kill six rubber plantation workers after ambushing a vehicle in Tumahubong, Basilan. (6 killed).[49]
  17. July 28, 2012: ASG militants kill seven soldiers during an armed clash with the group in Panglayahan, Jolo. (7 killed ).[50]

Relationships with Other Groups

The ASG and Al-Qaeda have a well-publicized cooperative relationship. A secret AFP intelligence report of early 2000 reportedly asserted that Abu Sayyaf received training, arms, and other support from Al Qaeda and other Middle East terrorist groups. Ten AFP officers subsequently reported that “foreign Muslims” were training Abu Sayyaf on Mindanao to conduct urban terrorism [51] [52]

Leaders of the MILF and MNLF have denied any supportive links with Abu Sayyaf. They have criticized Abu Sayyaf’s terrorist attacks against civilians. However, the U.S. and the Philippine government are still suspicious of links between the three groups, considering the proximity of MNLF and Abu Sayyaf units, as well as the overlapping memberships among the three groups. Abu Sayyaf was originally a splinter group of the MNLF that broke away in the early 1990s. [53] In addition, it has been speculated that the tenuous relations between the Philippine government and the MILF and MNLF raise the strong possibility of shifting linkages among the three Muslim groups. [54] 

Community Relationships

Muslim civilians in Philippine cities Jolo and Basilan reportedly financially support the ASG, however, many became disillusioned by the ASG's violent tactics. Niksch, Larry. Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. Rep. CRS Report for Congress, 25 Jan. 2002. Web. 21 Aug. 2012. <http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31265.pdf>.

Other than private citizens with vested interests in the ASG, the Philippine public condemns the ASG's use of violence. The ASG is not backed by many mainstream Muslim leaders either. [55]

Other Key Characteristics & Events

Ethnicity: Filipino (Moros: Philippine Muslims), Malay, Tausug/Suluk


References

  1. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Kidnappings, Bombings and Other Attacks." GMA News Online. 23 Aug. 2007. Web. 19 May 2012 <http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/154797/news/abu-sayyaf-kidnappings-bombings-and-other-attacks>.
  2. ^ "Kidnapped Philippine Researcher released by Abu Sayyaf Gunmen." Xinhua. 31 July 2013. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/800386.shtml#.Uf_24mR73zc>
  3. ^ Hutchison, Billye G. "Abu Sayyaf." The Counterproliferation Papers 49th ser. (2009): 3. USAF Counterproliferation Center, Sept. 2009. Web. Accessed 25 May 2012.
  4. ^ Hutchison, Billye G. "Abu Sayyaf." The Counterproliferation Papers 49th ser. (2009): 1. USAF Counterproliferation Center, Sept. 2009. Web. Accessed 25 May 2012. <http://cpc.au.af.mil/PDF/monograph
  5. ^ Rommel C. Banlaoi, “The Abu Sayyaf Group: From Mere Banditry to Genuine Terrorism,” Southeast Asian Affairs, (2006)
  6. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  7. ^ "Rewards for Justice - Radullan Sahiron Reward Offer." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 26 May 2009. Web. 24 May 2012. .
  8. ^ "Isnilon Totoni Hapilon." Federal Bureau of Investigation. Web. 24 May 2012. .
  9. ^ "Rewards for Justice - Abdul Basit Usman Reward Offer." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 26 May 2009. Web. 25 May 2012. .
  10. ^ McGeown, Kate. "Philippine Military 'kills Three Wanted Militants'" BBC News. BBC, 02 Feb. 2012. Web. 19 May 2012. .
  11. ^ McGivering, Jill. "Key Abu Sayyaf Member 'arrested' in the Philippines." BBC News. BBC, 16 Dec. 2009. Web. 19 May 2012. .
  12. ^ "Philippines: Who's Who." ABC News. ABC News Network, 06 Jan. 2006. Web. 24 May 2012. .
  13. ^ "Profiles of Dead Abu Sayyaf Leaders." BBC News. BBC, 15 Mar. 2005. Web. 24 May 2012. .
  14. ^ "Profiles of Dead Abu Sayyaf Leaders." BBC News. BBC, 15 Mar. 2005. Web. 24 May 2012. .
  15. ^ Meo, Nick. "US Helps Fight against Abu Sayyaf." BBC News. BBC, 04 Feb. 2007. Web. 19 May 2012. .
  16. ^ Montlake, Simon. "Philippines Kills Abu Sayyaf Most-wanted Albader Parad." The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 25 May 2012.
  17. ^ "Abu Sayyaf 'chooses New Leader'" BBC News. BBC, 28 June 2007. Web. 25 May 2012. .
  18. ^ Kamlian, Jamail A. "Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Southern Philippines: A Discourse on Self-Determination, Political Autonomy and Conflict Resolution." Islam and Human Rights Fellow Lecture. Emory University, School of Law, Atlanta. Lecture
  19. ^ "Philippines: International Religious Freedom Report 2002." U.S. Department of State. Department of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 2002. Web. Accessed 24 May 2012. <http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2002/13907.htm>.
  20. ^ Hutchison, Billye G. "Abu Sayyaf." The Counterproliferation Papers 49th ser. (2009): 3. USAF Counterproliferation Center; Sept. 2009. http://cpc.au.af.mil/PDF/monograph/abusayyaf.pdf. Accessed August 31, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Council on Foreign Relations. 27 May 2009. Web. Accessed 6 August 2013. <http://www.cfr.org/philippines/abu-sayyaf-group-philippines-islamist-separatists/p9235#p8>
  22. ^ Banlaoi, Rommel C. "The Sources of the Abu Sayyaf’s Resilience in the Southern Philippines." Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point. 3 May 2010. Web. 24 May 2012.
  23. ^ "Kidnapped Philippine Researcher Released by Abu Sayyaf Gunmen." Xinhua. 31 July 2013. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013.
  24. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  25. ^ "Country Reports on Terrorism 2011." US State Department. 31 July 2012. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011/195553.htm#asg>
  26. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  27. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  28. ^ Shay, Christopher. "A Brief History of Abu Sayyaf." Time. Time, 01 Oct. 2009. Web. 25 May 2012. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1927124,00.html.
  29. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Institute for the Study of Violent Groups. Web. http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Abu_Sayyaf_Group_%28ASG%29?highlight=abu+sayyaf+group. Accessed August 2, 2012.
  30. ^ Niksch, Larry. Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. Rep. CRS Report for Congress, 25 Jan. 2002. Web. Accessed 21 Aug. 2012. <http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31265.pdf>.
  31. ^ Shay, Christopher. "A Brief History of Abu Sayyaf." Time. 1 October 2009. Web. Accessed 25 May 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1927124,00.html>
  32. ^ "Country Reports on Terrorism 2011." US State Department. 31 July 2012. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011/195553.htm#asg>
  33. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Council on Foreign Relations. 27 May 2009. Web. Accessed 6 August 2013. <http://www.cfr.org/philippines/abu-sayyaf-group-philippines-islamist-separatists/p9235>
  34. ^ Banlaoi, Rommel C. "The Sources of the Abu Sayyaf’s Resilience in the Southern Philippines." Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, 3 May 2010. Web. 18 May 2012. <https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-sources-of-the-abu-sayyaf’s-resilience-in-the-southern-philippines>.
  35. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  36. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Kidnappings, Bombings and Other Attacks." GMA News Online. 23 Aug. 2007. Web. 19 May 2012. .
  37. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Profile." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/abu_sayyaf.html.
  38. ^ Elegant, Simon . "Philippines: The return of Abu Sayyaf - TIME." Time.com. N.p., 23 Aug. 2004. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,686107,00.html
  39. ^ Fuller, Thomas. "French TV Crew Becomes Part of Hostage Story - NYTimes.com." The New York Times. N.p., 11 July 2000. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/07/11/news/11iht-jolo.2.t_0.html.
  40. ^ "Hostages die in Philippine rescue bid." BBC News. N.p., 7 June 2002. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2031004.stm
  41. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Council on Foreign Relations. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original article on February 20, 2008. http://www.cfr.org/philippines/abu-sayyaf-group-philippines-islamist-separatists/p9235. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  42. ^ Spaeth, Anthony. "First Bali, Now Davao." Time MAgazine. March 10, 2003. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,430934,00.html. Accessed July 18, 2012.
  43. ^ "Bomb caused Philippine ferry fire." BBC News. N.p., 11 Oct. 2004. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3732356.stm
  44. ^ Elegant, Simon. "The Return of Abu Sayyaf." Time Magazine. August 23, 2004. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,686107,00.html. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  45. ^ "What Went Before: Valentine's Day bombings in 2005." Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 26, 2011. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20110126-316618/What-went-before-Valentines-Day-bombings-in-2005. Accessed July 18, 2012.
  46. ^ Reyes, Jewel. "2 More die in Abu Sayyaf attack in Basilian." March 1, 2010. ABS-CBN News. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/regions/03/01/10/2-more-die-abu-sayyaf-attack-basilan. Accessed July 19, 2012.
  47. ^ Philippine Kidnappers Demand Ransom for Australian." BBC News. BBC, 01 May 2012. Web. 19 May 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-16420760>
  48. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  49. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  50. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Australian Government. Web. Accessed 5 August 2013. <http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Abu_Sayyaf_Group>
  51. ^ Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. Terrorism War’s New Front. Washington Post, December 22, 2001. P. A1. Kurlantzick, Joshua. Muslim Separatists in Global Network of Terrorist Groups. Washington Times, May 2, 2000. P. A13.
  52. ^ Niksch, Larry. Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. Rep. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
  53. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group." Council on Foreign Relations. 27 May 2009. Web. Accessed 6 August 2013. <http://www.cfr.org/philippines/abu-sayyaf-group-philippines-islamist-separatists/p9235>
  54. ^ Niksch, Larry. Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. Rep. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
  55. ^ "Philippines: International Religious Freedom Report 2002." U.S. Department of State. Department of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 2002. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2002/13907.htm>.

Print this page

Contents

Search