Neuroimaging refers to techniques that produce images of the brain without requiring surgery, incision of the skin, or any direct contact with the inside of the body. Because these technologies enable noninvasive visualization of the structure and functionality of the brain, neuroimaging has become a powerful tool for both research and medical diagnosis. Although still [...]
What are clinical trials? In order for any drug or treatment to be approved for human use by the FDA, it must first successfully pass clinical trials. A clinical trial is a medical or health-related research study in humans that follows a strict protocol in a carefully monitored, scientifically controlled setting. Clinical trials are generally [...]
This chapter explains some of the many different types of research that scientists use to study Huntington’s Disease. The above figure shows a rather strange mouse paw photographed under fluorescent light. Why on earth is this paw green? Despite its appearance, the mouse is not an alien nor has it taken a bath in nuclear [...]
Many medical research institutions make use of non-human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about human disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and rats share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be tremendously helpful for furthering medical science.
Huntington's disease research and drug testing frequently involve the use of mouse models. However, when different scientists refer to an HD mouse model they may not be referencing the same model. A variety of HD mouse models exist and are used regularly. This chapter will describe the most common HD mouse models, how they differ, and the ways in which they mimic the disease.
There are a number of well-established methods used to measure the severity and progression of Huntington’s disease (HD). These can evaluate a patient’s mental and physical capabilities and track any changes over time. Having standardized methods for measurement is important because it allows for the comparison of patients in clinical trials and the quantification of symptoms to guide treatment and therapy options.
Have you ever wondered how new medicines are discovered? The process of going from an important discovery in a science laboratory to a successful drug available to the public is complex, costly, and time-consuming. This process is often referred to as Research and Development, or the R&D pipeline. It has many stages that interact and [...]