ResearcherID is a global, multi-disciplinary scholarly research community. Each researcher listed is assigned a unique identifier, to aid in solving the common problem of author misidentification. Search the registry to find citations, collaborators, and more.
This is valuable tool for listing your papers, books etc. resulting from your research - place a link to your list on your website, Facebook account, etc. If you're trying to find research, it's a good place for finding papers that aren't published or aren't searchable on the Web. Use the tag cloud or search by keyword. It's also useful for clarifying the identity of an author or researcher, e.g. if that person has a common name. The keywords and affiliations can help narrow down the possibilities.
You can also find a link to ResearchID from the Web of Science service (from this page under W).