Welcome to the Chinese Railroad Workers of North America Project. The archive is under construction, and it will include photographs, texts, art, videos and other materials. Only a few samples are presented in this web site, but when the digital archive is completed we will provide access to the full archive for the public at that time.
The captions accompanying photographs are provided by the holding institutions and are reproduced here as part of the historical record. They may contain descriptors and terminology that are offensive to us today. Similar issues of offensive language may arise in historical texts and place names on this website.
Selected Bibliography of Secondary Sources
Aarim-Heriot, Najia. Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Racial Anxiety in the United States, 1848-1882. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.
Ah-Tye, Howard. Resourceful Chinese. Oakland: Chinese Presbyterian Church of Oakland, 1999.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Ambrose, Stephen E. “The Central Pacific Attacks the Sierra Nevada.” American History. 35.4, 2000.
Annian, Huang, ed. Zhang Juguo, trans. The Silent Spikes: Chinese Laborers and the Construction of North American Railroads. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, 2006.
Arkush, R. David, and Leo O. Lee, eds. Land Without Ghosts: Chinese Impressions of America from the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present. Berkeley: UC Press, 1989.
Arreola, D. “The Chinese Role in Creating the Early Cultural Landscape of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.” California Geographer 15 (1975): 1-15.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume XXXVIII: Essays and Miscellany. San Francisco: The History Company, 1890.
Bain, David Hayward. Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad. New York: Viking Penguin, 1999.
Barkan, Elliot Robert. From All Points: America’s Immigrant West, 1870s-1952.
Barth, Gunther. Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850-1870. Cambridge: Harvard U Press, 1964.
Blazing Saddles. Dir. Mel Brooks. Perf. Gene Wilder, Cleavon Little, Slim Pickins, Harvery Korman, Madeline Kahn. Warner Bros., 1974. Film.
Bowles, Samuel. Our New West: Records of travel between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. Harford Publishing Company: Hartford, CT, 1869.
Brace, Charles Loring. The New West, or, California in 1867-1868. New York: G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1869.
Bristol-Kagan, Leigh. “Chinese Migration to California, 1851-1882: Selected Industries of Work, the Chinese Institutions and the Legislative Exclusion of a Temporary Work Force.” Ph.D. dissertation in history and East Asian languages. Harvard University, 1982.
Brownstone, David M. The Chinese-American Heritage. New York: Facts on File, 1988. On res
Carter, Gregg Lee. “Social Demography of the Chinese in Nevada: 1870-1880.” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly. 18.2, 1975. 72-89.
Chacon, Ramon D. “The Beginning of Racial Segregation: The Chinese in West Fresno and Chinatown’s Role as Red Light District 1870s-1920s.” Southern California Quarterly. 70.4, 1988. 371-298.
Chan, Sucheng. This Bittersweet Soil: Chinese in California Agriculture, 1860-1910. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1986.
Chang, Iris. The Chinese in America: A Narrative History. New York: Viking, 2003.
Chang, Jui-te. “The Dragon and the Horse: The Economics of Railroads in China, 1876-1937.” Hanxue Yanjiu (Chinese Studies). 4.1, 1986. 333-338. (In Chinese)
Chen, Jack. The Chinese of America. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.
Hee, George. Oral History, Mendocino County. Fort Bragg, Calif.: Mendocino County Historical Society, 1976. Vol. 1.
Kin, Huie. Reminiscences. Peking: San Yu Press, 1932.
Chen, Yong. Chinese San Francisco, 1850-1943: A Trans-Pacific Community. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 2000.
Chew, James R. “Boyhood Days in Winnemucca 1901-1910.” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly. 41.3, 1998. 206-209.
Chew, Lee. “The Life Story of a Chinaman.” Hamilton Holt, ed. The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans. New York: J. Pott, 1906.
Chew, William F. Nameless Builders of the Transcontinental Railroad. Victoria: Trafford. 2004. On reserve
Chinn, Thomas W. A History of the Chinese in California: A Syllabus. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1969.
Chiu, Herman B. “When 1,000 Words Are Worth a Picture: How Newspapers Portrayed the Chinese and Irish Who Built the First Transcontinental Railroad.” Dissertations Abstract International. 66.2, 2005. 392.
Chiu, Ping. Chinese Labor in California, 1850-1880: An Economic Study. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1967.
Choy, Philip P., Lorraine Dong, and Marlon K. Hom. The Coming Man: 19th Century Perceptions of the Chinese. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., 1994.
Christopher, Paul. “Placer County in 1874: The Letters of Duncan Mackenzie.” Pacific Historian. 19.1, 1975. 50-57.
Chung, Sue Fawn and Priscilla Wegars, eds. Chinese American Death Rituals: Respecting The Ancestors. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2005.
Clark, George Thomas. Leland Stanford, War Governor of California, Railroad Builder and Founder of Stanford University. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 1931.
Clayborn, Hannah. Historic Photos of the Chinese in California. Nashville, TN: Turner Publishing Company, 2009.
Cloud, Patricia, and Galenson, David W. “Chinese Immigration and Contract Labor in the Late Nineteenth Century.” National Bureau of Economic Research. 27 Jul. 2004: 22-42.
Cole, Cheryl L. “Chinese Exclusion: The Capitalist Perspective of the ‘Sacramento Union,’ 1850-1882.” California History. 57.1, 1978: 8-31.
Cole, Cornelius. Memoirs of Cornelius Cole. New York, NY, 1906: 182-184.
Con, Harry, Ronald J. Con, Graham Johnson, Edgar Wickberg, and William E. Willmott. From China to Canada: A History of the Chinese Communities in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1982.
Don Conley, “The Pioneer Chinese of Utah.” Chinese on the American Frontier. Eds. Arif Dirlik and Malcolm Yeung. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2001.
Coolidge, Mary Roberts. Chinese Immigration. New York City: Henry Holt and Company, 1909: 75-84.
Cornford, Daniel. “To Save the Republic: The California Workingmen’s Party in Humboldt County.” California History. 66.2, 1987:130-142.
Robert Cowan. Bibliography of the Chinese Question in the United States. San Francisco: A.M. Robertson, 1909.
Currarino, Rosanne. The Labor Question in America: Economic Democracy in the Gilded Age. Urbana, IL: U of Illinois Press, 2011.
Daniels, Roger. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.
Deverell, William. Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad, 1850-1910. Berkeley: UC Press, 1993.
Dirlik, Arif, ed. Chinese on the American Frontier. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 2001.
Dusanka, Miscevic, and Peter Kwong. Chinese American: The Immigrant Experience. Southport: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 2000.
Dusanka, Miscevic, and Peter Kwong. Chinese America: The Untold Story of America’s Oldest New Community. New York City: The New Press, 2005.
Eterovich, Adam S. Chinese Immigration: The Social, Moral, and Political Effect of Chinese Immigration. Sacremento, CA: State Printing Office, 1876.
Eterovich, Adam S. “Memorial: Six Chinese Companies, An Address to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States.” San Francisco: Read and Judge US, 1877.
Felton, David L. The Central Pacific Railroad Passenger Station, Sacramento. Sacramento: California Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Cultural Heritage Section, 1978.
Fleming, Thomas. “The Race to Promontory.” American History Illustrated. 6.3, 1971: 10-25.
Flores, Lisa A. “Constructing Rhetorical Borders: Peons, Aliens, and Competing Narratives of Immigration.” Critical Studies in Media Communication. 20.4. December, 2003: 362-387.
Francaviglia, Richard V. Over the Range: A History of the Promontory Summit Route of the Pacific Railroad. Logan, Utah: Utah State U Press, 2008.
Fulton, Robert Lardin. Epic of the Overland: An Account of the Building of the Central and Union Pacific Railroad. Los Angeles: N.A. Kovach, 1954.
Galloway, John Debo. The First Transcontinental Railroad: Central Pacific, Union Pacific. New York: Simmons-Boardman, 1950.
Gardner, Dudley. “Chinese Immigrants in the Wild Rose County: Alberta, 1881-1910.” Journal of the West. 45.1, 2006.
Gibson, Rev. Otis. The Chinese in America. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden, 1877.
Gouge, Catherine. “The Glorious ‘National Problem’: Frontierism and Citizenship in Frank Chin’s Donald Duk.” Journal of American Culture. 31.3, 2008: 271-282.
Greyhavens, Tim. “Map of the Anti-Chinese Expulsion and Riot: Seattle, Washington, February 7-8, 1886.” www.what-you-see.com. np, nd.
Griego, Andrew. “Rebuilding the California Southern Railroad: The Personal Account of a Chinese Labor Contractor, 1884.” Journal of San Diego History. 25.4, 1979.
Griswold, Wesley S. A Work of Giants: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.
Gulick, Bill. Roadside History of Oregon. Missoula: Mountain Press Publishing, 1991.
Hansen, Gladys C., ed. The Chinese in California: A Brief Bibliographic History. Portland: Richard Abel and Company, 1970.
Hee, George. Oral History, Mendocino County. Fort Bragg, Calif.: Mendocino County Historical Society, 1976. Vol. 1.
Hersh, Lawrence K. Central Pacific Railroad across Nevada, 1868 & 1997: Photographic Comparatives. North Hollywood, CA: Lawrence K. Hersh, 2000.
Hess, Chester Netwen. “What California Means For Its Oldest Living Chinese.” Westways. 26.3, 1934.
Hing, Bill Ong. Making and Remaking Asian America Through Immigration Policy, 1850-1990. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 1993.
Hoobler, Dorothy and Thomas. The Chinese American Family Album. Oxford, U.K: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Howard, Robert West. The Great Iron Trail: The Story of the First Continental Railroad. New York: Putnam, 1962.
Hoexter, Corinne K. From Canton to California: The Epic of Chinese Immigration. New York, NY: Four Winds Press, 1976.
Hsu, Madeline. Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migration between the United States and South China, 1882-1943. Stanford: Stanford U Press, 2000.
Hu, Sen and Jielin Dong, ed. The Rocky Road to Liberty: A Documented History of Chinese Immigration and Exclusion. Saratoga: Javvin Press, 2010.
Hyde, Stuart W. “The Chinese Stereotype in American Melodrama.” California Historical Society Quarterly, XXXIV. 1955: 357-365.
Jackson, Donald Dale. “‘Behave like your actions reflect on all Chinese.’” Smithsonian. 21.11, 1991: 114-124.
Jung, Moon-Ho. Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Kent, Percy Horace. Railway Enterprise in China: An Account of its Origin and Development, 1907.
Kibbey, Mead B. The Railroad Photographs of Alfred A. Hart, Artist. Sacramento, CA: California State Library Foundation, 1996.
Kibria, Nazli. Becoming Asian American: Second-Generation Chinese and Korean American Identities. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2002.
Kim, Hyung-chan, ed. Asian American Studies: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Kin, Huie. Reminiscences. Peking: San Yu Press, 1932.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. China Men. New York, NY: 1977: 122-149.
Kirk, Andrew Taylor. “Radical Labor, Racism, and the Preservation of Hegemony in Ogden, Territorial Utah, 1885-1886.” American Journalism. 24.4, 2007: 149-173.
Kraus, George. “Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific.” Utah Historical Quarterly 37.1, 1969: 40-57.
Kraus, George. High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific Across the High Sierra. Palo Alto: American West Publishing Company, 1969.
Kwong, Peter. Forbidden Workers: Illegal Chinese Immigrants and American Labor. New York, NY: The New Press, 1997: 142-145.
Lai, David Chuenyan. Chinatowns: Towns Within Cities in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1988.
Lai, Him Mark. Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. Walnut Creek: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2004.
Lai, Him Mark. “Historical Development of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huiguan System.” Chinese America: History and Perspectives, 1987.
Lai, Him Mark, Joe Huang, and Don Wong. The Chinese of America, 1785-1980. San Francisco: Chinese Culture Foundation, 1980.
Lau, Estelle T. Paper Families: Identity, Immigration Administration and Chinese Exclusion. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Laurie, Clayton D. “Civil Disorder and the Military in Rock Springs, Wyoming: The Army’s Role in the 1885 Chinese Massacre.” Montana: the Magazine of Western History. 40.3, 1990. 44-59.
Lee, Rose Hum. The Chinese in the United States of America. Hong Kong: Hong Kong U Press, 1960.
Lewis, Oscar. The Big Four: The Story of Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins, and Crocker, and the building of the Central Pacific. New York, NY: A.A. Knopf, 1938.
Levy, Daniel W. “Classical Lawyers and the Southern Pacific Railroad.” Western Legal History: The Journal of the Ninth Judicial Circuit Historical Society. 9.2, 1996: 176-226.
Liestman, Daniel. “Utah’s Chinatown: The Development and Decline of Extinct Ethnic Enclaves.” Utah Historical Quarterly. 64.1, 1996: 70-95.
Lo, Karl and Him Mark Lai. Chinese Newspapers Published in North America, 1854-1975. Washington, D.C.: Center for Chinese Research Materials, Association of Research Libraries, 1977.
Lydon, Sandy. Chinese Gold: The Chinese in Monterrey Bay Region. Capitola, CA: Capitola Book Co., 1985.
Ma, L. Eve Armentrout. “Chinese in Marin County, 1850-1950: A Century of Growht and Decline.” Chinese America: History & Perspectives. Chinese Historical Society, 1991: 25-48.
Magnaghi, Russel M. “Virginia City’s Chinese Community, 1860-1880.” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly. 24.2, 1981. 130-157.
Mankell, Henning. The Man From Beijing. London : Harvill Secker, 2010.
Mayer, Lynne Rhodes and Kenneth E. Vose. Makin’ Tracks: The Story of the Transcontinental Railroad in the Pictures and Words of the Men Who Were There. New York: Praeger, 1975.
McCague, James. Moguls and Iron Men: The Story of the First Transcontinental Railroad. New York: Harper & Row, 1964.
McClain, Charles. In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley: UC Press, 1994.
McClain, Charles. “Chinese Immigration: A Comment on Cloud and Galenson.” Explorations in Economic History. 27, 1990: 363-78.
McCloskey, James J. Across the Continent, or, Scenes from New York Life and the Pacific Railroad [in, Davy Crockett & other plays by Leonard Grover, Frank Murdock, Lester Wallack, G. H. Jessop, J. J. McCloskey. Edited by Isaac Goldberg and Hubert Heffner]. Princeton: Princeton U Press, 1940.
McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. An Illustrated History of the Chinese in America. San Francisco: Design Enterprises of San Francisco, 1979.
McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. Chinese American Portraits: Personal Histories 1828-1988. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1988.
McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. Pie-biter. San Francisco: Design Enterprises of San Francisco, 1983.
McLeod, Alexander. Pigtails and Gold Dust: A Panorama of Chinese Life in Early California. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd, 1947: 69, 71-85.
Meschery, Joanne. Truckee: An Illustrated History of the Town and its Surroundings. Truckee, CA: Rocking Stone Press, 1978.
Miller, Martha B. “The Chinese and the Central Pacific Railroad: An Example of Labor and Immigration in the Nineteenth Century.” M.A. Thesis. University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1989.
Miller, Stuart C. The Unwelcome Immigrant: American Images of Chinese, 1785-1882. Berkeley: UC Press, 1969.
Milner II, Clyde A., Carol A. O’Connor, and Martha A. Sandweiss. The Oxford History of the American West. New York: Oxford U Press, 1994.
Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987: 67
Moran, Jeffrey. “Chinese Labor for the New South.” Southern Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the South. 3.4, 1992.
Muench, Christopher. ”One Hundred Years of Medicine: The Ah-Fong Physicians of Idaho.” Chinese Medicine on the Golden Mountain: An Interpretive Guide. Henry G. Schwarz, ed. Seattle: Chinese Historical Society of the Pacific Northwest, 1984.
Nee, Victor G. and Brett de Barry Nee. Longtime Californ’: A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown. New York: Pantheon, 1972.
Ng, Dennis. Origins and Destinations: 41 Essays on Chinese America. Chinese Historical Society of Southern California and UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1994.
Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History. New York: Columbia U Press, 2001.
Ong, Paul M. “The Central Pacific Railroad and Exploitation of Chinese Labor.” Journal of Ethnic Studies. 13.2, 1985.
Parmet, Robert D. Labor and Immigration in Industrial America. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers, 1981.
Peabody, Etta B. ”Effort of the South to Import Chinese Coolies, 1865-1870.” M.A. thesis. Baylor University, 1967.
Pegler-Gordon, Anna. “Chinese Exclusion, Photography, and the Development of U.S. Immigration Policy.” American Quarterly, 58.1. 2006: 51-77.
Perl, Lila. To The Gold Mountain: The Story of the Chinese Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad. Tarrytown, New York: Benchmark Books, 2002.
Phillips, Catherine Coffin. Coulterville Chronicle: The Annals of a Mother Lode Mining Town. San Francisco: The Grabhorn Press, 1942.
Pfaelzer, Jean. Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans. New York: Random House, 2007.
Powell, Grady. “The Value of Chinese Immigrants During the Building of the First American Transcontinental Railroad, 1852-1869.” Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association. 2002: 55-66.
Prather, William N. “Sui Sin Far’s Railroad Baron: A Chinese of the Future.” American Literary Realism. 29.1, 1996.
Pricer, Barbara. The Chinese In Northern California. [Calif?: s. n.], 1996.
Richardson, Albert D. Beyond the Mississippi. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Company, 1869.
“Racism in Frontier Journalism: A Case Study.” Journal of the West. 19.2, Apr80: 46-50.
Rhoades, Edward J.M. “The Chinese in Texas.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81.1, 1977.
Rosenbaum, Arthur Lewis. “China’s First Railway.” Ph.D dissertation. Yale University, 1972.
Rosenblum, Gerald. Immigrant Workers: Their Impact on American Labor Radicalism. New York, NY: Basic Books Inc. Publishers, 1973.
Sabin, E.L. Building the Pacific Railway. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1919.
Sacramento Chinese Culture Foundation and Asian-American Studies. 150 Years of the Chinese Presence in California: Honor the Past, Engage the Present, Build the Future. Sacramento: Sacramento Chinese Cultural Foundation, 2001.
Sandmeyer, Elmer Clarence. The Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1973.
Saxton, Alexander. “The Army of Canton in the High Sierra.” Pacific Historical Review. Vol.35, 1966: 141-152.
Saxton, Alexander. The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: UC Press, 1995.
Scwantes, Carlos A. “Protest in the Promised Land: Unemployment, Disinheritance, and the Origin of Labor Militancy in the Pacific Northwest, 1885-1886.” The Western Historical Quarterly. 13.4, Oct. 1882: 373-390
See, Lisa. On Gold Mountain. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
Silver, Joseph S. “The Chinese in California.” Lippincott’s Magazine of Literature, Science, and Education Vol. 2. 1868: 36.
Sinnott, Susan. Chinese Railroad Workers. New York: Franklin Watts, 1994.
Spier, Robert F.G. “Food Habits of Nineteenth-Century California Chinese.” California Historical Society Quarterly. 37.1-2, 1958.
Stewart, John J. The Iron Trail to the Golden Spike. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1969.
Storti, Craig. Incident at Bitter Creek: The Story of the Rock Springs Chinese Massacre. Ames: Iowa State U Press, 1991.
Sung, Betty Lee. Mountain of Gold: The Story of the Chinese in America. New York: Macmillan, 1967: 30-35, 39.
Tong, Benson. Unsubmissive Women: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.
Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. China and the Overseas Chinese in the United States, 1868-1911. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1983.
Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry. The Chinese Experience in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986: 15-19.
Tzu-Kuei Yen, “Chinese Workers and the First Transcontinental Railroad of the United States of America.” Ph.D. dissertation. St. John’s University, 1976
Villard, O. G. “Justice for the Chinese,” Christian Century Vol 60 (May 26, 1943): 633-634.
Voss, Barbara L. and Bryn Williams, eds. The Archaeology of Chinese Immigrant and Chinese American Communities. Historical Archaeology: Society for Historical Archaeology. 42.3, 2008: 1-4.
Wai-man, Lei. Portraits of a Challenge: An Illustrated History of the Chinese Canadians. Toronto: The Council of Chinese Canadians in Ontario, 1984.
Ward, Jeffrey Louis. “Threads of Silk and Steel: The Chinese and the Building of the Northern Pacific Railway.” Pacific Northwest Forum. 6.1, 1993: 18-28.
Wegars, Priscilla. Hidden Heritage: Historical Archaeology of the Overseas Chinese. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., 1993.
Wegars, Priscilla. “Who’s Been Workin’ on the Railroad?: An Examination of the Construction, Distribution, and Ethnic Origins of Domed Rock Ovens on Railroad-Related Sites.” Historical Archaeology. 25.1, 1991: 37-65.
Welke, Barbara. Recasting American Liberty: Gender, Race, Law and the Railroad Revolution, 1865-1920.
White, Richard. Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.
Wollenberg, Charles. Ethnic Conflict in California History. Los Angeles, CA: Tinnon-Brown, Inc., 1970.
Wong, Marie Rose. Sweet Cakes, Long Journey: The Chinatowns of Portland, Oregon. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2004.
Wright, Chris J. “Guests of the Golden Mountain.” California Territorial Quarterly. 68. 2006: 32-37.
Yen, Tzu-Kuei. Chinese Workers and the First Transcontinental Railroad of the United States of America. Ann Arbor, New York: St. John’s University, 1977.
Yep, Laurence. Dragon’s Gate. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
Ying, Zeng. “Development of the San Diego Chinese American Community: A Preliminary Investigation.” Chinese America: History and Perspectives, 1997. Chinese Historical Society of America.
Yong Chen. “Remembering Ah Quin: A Century of Social Memory in a Chinese-American Family.” Oral History Review. 27.1, 2000. 57.
Yu, Connie Young. “John C. Young, A Man Who Loved History.” Chinese America: History and Perspectives 1989. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1989.
Yung, Judy, Gordon H. Chang, Him Mark Lai, ed. Chinese American Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present. Berkeley and Los Angeles: UC Press, 2006.
Zhu, Liping. “A Chinaman’s Chance: The Chinese on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History. 45.4, 1995.
Zhu, Liping. “Chinese Inclusion in the History of the American West.” Journal of the West. 45.1, 2006.