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Environmental History of Latin America

Cono Sur

General Editor:

Lise Sedrez
Stanford University

John Wirth
Stanford University

José Drummond
Federal Fluminense

Borderline cases: environmental matters at the United States-Mexico border. 1997. Producer and director Lynn Corcoran. 65 min. Oley, PA: Bullfrog Films.

Hamburger: Jungleburger. s.d. Director Peter Heller. 58 min. New York, NY: First Run/Icarus Films.
Focusing on the cattle raising and meat export businesses in Costa Rica, JUNGLEBURGER examines the impact of the fast food industry on Third World countries.

Abbass, D. K. 1993. Herd Development in hte New World Spanish Colonies: Conquistadores and Peasants. In Themes in Rural History of the Wstern World. Ed. Richard Herr, 165-93. Ames, IO: Iowa State University Press.

Banana Company. [1982?]. Producer Lilia Alfaro P., and Martha Clarisa Hernandez. Director Ramiro Lacazo Deshon. 15 min. New York, NY: First Run/Icarus Films.
Depicts the exploitation of banana plantation workers in Nicaragua by large American companies working there. Interviews workers on the plantations and in the shipping warehouses where the bananas are cleaned and packaged. Commentary is provided by Ernesto Cardenal's poem to the workersReview at

Arizpe S., Lourdes, Fernanda Paz, and Margarita Velázquez. 1996. Culture and Global Change: Social Perceptions of Deforestation in the Lacandona Rain Forest in Mexico. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Barry, Tom. 1987. Roots of Rebellion: Land & Hunger in Central America. Boston: South End Press.

In good hands: culture and agriculture in the Lacandón Rainforest. 1993. Editor Steve Bartz. Director Jaime Kibben. 27 min. Wizard Twins.

Benjamin, Thomas. 1981. El Trabajo en las Monterias de Chiapas y Tabasco, 1870-1946. Historia Mexicana 30, no. 4: 506-29.
Describes the harsh conditions in mahogany lumber camps in Mexico, late nineteenth through mid-twentieth centuries. Argues that the camps were essentially debtors' prisons and that government efforts at reform through unionization were insufficient. (Note by FHS).

Bennet, E. Fay. 1977. An Afternoon of Terror: The Sonoran Earthquake of May 3, 1887. Arizona and the West 19, no. 2: 107-20.

Boomgaard, Peter . 1992. The Tropical Rain Forests of Suriname: Exploitation and Management 1600-1975. New West Indian Guide 66, no. 3-4: 207-35.

Brading, D. A. 1978. Haciendas and Ranchos in the Mexican Bajio: Leon, 1700-1860.

Brading, D. A., and Celia Wu. 1973. Population Growth and Crisis: Leon, 1720-1860. Journal of Latin American Studies 5: 1-36.

Brown, Jonathan, and Alan Knight, Eds. 1992. The Mexican Petroleum Industry in the Twentieth Century. Austin, TX: University of Texas PRess.

Burquez, Alberto, and Angelina Martinez-Yrizar. 1997-1998. Conservation and Landscape Transformation in Sonora, Mexico. Journal of the West 39: 371-98.
The history and present extent of nature reserves in Sonora, Mexico; 1930s-1990s. (Note by FHS).

Burwell, Trevor. 1995. Bootlegging on a Desert Mountain: The Political Ecology of Agave (Agave spp.) Demographic change in the Sonora River Valley, Sonora, Mexico. Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal 23, no. 3: 407-33.

Butzer, Karl W. 1988. Cattle and sheep from Old to New Spain: historical antecedents. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 78, no. 1: 28-57.

Butzer, Karl W. 1993. No Eden in the New World (evidence of environmental degradation due to prehispanic agricultural practices in Mexico). Nature 362, no. 6415: 15-18.
New evidence suggests that Mesoamerican agricultural practices before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century were not environmentally harmless as has been widely assumed. Sarah L. O'Hara and coworkers deduced rates of erosion due to agriculture from 21 cores taken the bottom of Lake Patzcuaro in Mexico. The resulting data show that prehispanic agriculture caused as much damage in the form of erosion as did pre-industrial land use under Spanish rule. (HLAS)

The Chaco legacy . 1988. Producer and director Graham Chedd. 59 min. [Alexandria, VA]: PBS Video.
Examines archaeological theories about the rise and fall of Chacoan culture, which had a high level of technical development and flourished over 900 years ago in the area of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Shows their extensive water control system, the large network of roads they constructed and several mammoth structures they built. Includes a history of the different excavation projects. (AA)

Claxton, Robert H. 1993. The Record of Drought and its Impact in Colonial Spanish America. In Themes in Rural History of the Wstern World. Ed. Richard Herr, 194-226. Ames, IO: Iowa State University Press.

Clendinnen, Inga. 1980. Landscape and World View in the Survival of Yucatec Maya Culture under Spanish Conquest. Comparative Studies in Society and History , no. 22: 374-93.

Cole-Christensen, Darryl. 1997. A Place in the Rain Forest: Settling the Costa Rican Frontier. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Collier, George Allen. 1975. Fields of the Tzotzil: the ecological bases of tradition in highland Chiapas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Collins, Jane Lou. 1986. Settlement and Deforestation in Cenrtral America: A Discussion of Development Issues.

Crosby Jr., Alfred W. 1992. Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition. Isis 83, no. 3: 470-471.

Crosby Jr., Alfred W. 1995. The Past and Present of Environmental History. American Historical Review 100: 1177-90.

Current, Dean, Ernst Lutz, and Sara Scherr . 1995. Costs, Benefits, and Farmer Adoption of Agroforestry: Project Experience in Central America and the Caribbean, World Bank, Washington DC.

De La Mora-Sanchez, Luz Maria. 1998. "Greening International Trade: Environmental Issues in United States-Mexico Relations." Yale University.
Recent history of international trade between these nations examining the influence of environmental non-governmental organizations on the development of political and policy agendas under the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Ph.D. Dissertation. (HLAS)

DeWalt, Billie R. 1978. Appropriate Technology in Rural Mexico: Antecedents and Consequences of an Indigenous Peasant Innovation. Technology and Culture 19: 32-52.
In the 1960's and early 1970's flood control and work were built in the Temascalcingo Valley of the Lerma River, in the central highlands of Mexcio. Aspects of the "Green Revolution" were also introduced. DeWaslt studied the peasant responses to these changes. He finds that the social , ecological and economic conditions led to the indigenous development of a new seed plow (sembradora) for planting corn. THere is a good summary of the ecological and economic characteristics of the region before and after the introductin of the water works. (Review from Environmental Review , Bibliographic Supplement III 1979-80).

Diaz Barriga, Miguel, and Karen Kleiber. 1996. The Press and Urban Conflict in Mexico City: A Case Study of Newspaper Reporting on Ecology and Urban Expansion in the Ajusco Region, 1982-1990. Mexican Studies-Estudios Mexicanos 12, no. 2: 273-301.

Doolittle, William Emery. 1990. Canal irrigation in prehistoric Mexico: the sequence of technological change. Austin : University of Texas Press.

Durham, William. 1979. Scarcity and Survival in Central America: Ecological Origins of the Soccer War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Dworkin, Mark, and Joshua Karliner. 1988. Environment under fire: ecology and politics in Central America. Presented by Moving Images Video Project and the Environmental Project on Central America. Directors Mark Dworkin, and Joshua Karliner. 27 min. Oakland, CA: Educational Film & Video Project.
Examines the way export crops, pesticides and war contribute to mass poverty and ecological destruction in Central America. Discusses the role of U.S. policies in that destruction, and Nicaragua's attempts to preserve the natural environment. (Note by FHS).

Edwards, Clinton R. 1986. The Human Impact on the Forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Forest History 30, no. 3: 120-127.

Endfield, Georgina H., and Sarah L. O'Hara. 1997. Conflicts Over Water in 'The Little Drought Age' in Central Mexico. Environment and History 3: 255-72.
The impact of climate change on water supply and water rights disputes; late sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. (Note by FHS).

Enge, Kjell I., and Scott Whiteford. 1989. Ecology, irrigation, and the state in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. In Human systems ecology: studies in the integration of political economy, adaptations, and socionatural regions. Sheldon Smith, and Ed ReevesBoulder, CO: Westview Press.

Escoto, Jorge A. Vivó. 1964. Weather and Climate of Mexico and Central America. In Handbook of Middle American Indias. Ed. Robert WauschopeVol. 1. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Evans, Sterling. 1999. The green republic a conservation history of Costa Rica. 1st ed ed. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Evans, Sterling. 1998. Yaquis vs. Yanquis: An Historical and Environmental Comparison of Coping with Aridity in Southern Sonora. Journal of the Southwest 40, no. 3: 363-96.

Ezcurra, Exequiel. 1990. The Basin of Mexico. In The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. Ed. B. L. III TurnerVol. 577-88. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ezcurra, Exequiel. 1991. De las Chinampas a la Megalopolis: el Medio Ambiente en la Cuenca de Mexico. Mexico City, Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economica.
Ecological history of Mexico City from Aztec times through the l980s. (HLAS).

Faber, Daniel. 1993. Environment Under Fire: Imperialism and the Ecological Crisis in Central America. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Chapters: A legacy of ecological imperialism; Povery, injustice and the Ecologican Crisis; Poisoning for Profit; Revolution in the Rainforest;The Nicaraguan Revolution and the Liberation of Nature; War Against Nature: Militarization and the Impacts of U.S. Policy; The Struggle for Social and Ecolognical Justice.

Faber, Daniel. 1988. Imperialism and the Crisis of Nature in Central America. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism: A Journal of Socialist Ecology , no. 1: 39-46.

Faber, Daniel. 1992. Imperialism, Revolution and the Ecological Crisis in Central America. Latin American Perspectives 19, no. 1: 17-44.

Farris, Nancy M. 1984. Maya Society Under Colonial Rule: The Collective Enterprise of Survival. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
This research covers the period of Maya life under Spanish rule from 1500 to 1820, filling a chronological gap in the literature. The author covers the material from the standpoint of the colonized. Her third stated goal is "to relate the specific Maya example to certain broad issues concerning both the nature and functioning of complex agrarian societies and the processes of sociocultural change within them, especially under the impact of colonial rule." Illustrations, maps, charts.

Furley, Peter A., David M Murno, Janice P. Darch, and Roland R. Randall. Human impact on the wetlands of Belize, Central America. In Ecological Relations in Historical Times: Human Impact and Adaptation. Eds. Neil Roberts, and Robin A. Butlin, 280-307. Cambridge, USA/Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

Garcia Martinez, Bernardo . 1987. Los pueblos de la Sierra : el poder y el espacio entre los indios del norte de Puebla hasta 1700. México City, Mexico: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Históricos.

Gehlbach, Frederick R. 1982. Mountain islands and desert seas: A natural history of the U.S.-Mexican Borderlands. College Stantion, Texas: Texas A. & M. University Press.

Gibson, Charles . 1964. Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico 1519-1810. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Glendinnen, Inga. 1995. Aztecs: An Interpretation . Canto ed ed. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Graham, Wade. 1991. MexEco?: Mexican Attitudes Toward the Environment. Environmental History Review 15: 1-17.

Grualich, Michel. 1983. Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico. Current Anthropology , no. 24: 575-88.

Hanke, Lewis. 1974. All Mankind is One: A Study of the Disputation Between Bartolome de Las Casas and Juan Gines de Sepulveda in 1550 on the Intellectual and Religious Capacity of the American Indians. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

Hanke, Lewis . 1976. The Theological Significance of the Discovery of America. First Images of America. Editor Ferdi Chiappelli, 363-75. Vol. Vol. 1. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

Hard, Robert J. 1992. Mobile Agriculturalists and the Emergence of Sedentism: Perspectives from Northern Mexico. American Anthropologist 94, no. 4: 601-18.

Hodell, David A., Jason H. Curtis, and Mark Brenner . 1995. Possible Role of Climate in the Collapse of the Ancient Maya Civilization. 391-95.

Horst, Oscar. 1995. 1902, año de caos: el impacto politico y socioeconomico de las catastrofes naturales en Guatemala. Mesoamerica 30: 308-26.

Howard, Philip. 1998. The History of Ecological Marginalization in Chiapas. Environmental History 3: 356-77.
Deforestation, soil erosion, land degradation, human population growth, and the manipulation of land tenure arrangements and of property rights by the landed elite in southeastern Mexico since the nineteenth century. Discusses the influence of such issues on the 1994 Zapatista Rebellion. (Note by FHS).

Hughes, J. Donald. 1999. The Classic Maya Collapse. Capitalism Nature Socialism 10, no. 1: 81-89.

Jones, Jeffery R. 1990. Colonization and Environment: Land Settlement Projects in Central America.

Joseph, Gilbert M., and Mark D. Szuchman, Eds. 1996. I Saw a City Invincible: Urban Portraits of Latin America . Wilmington, Del.: SR Books.

Karliner, Joshua. 1989. The Ecological Destabilization of Central America. World Policy Journal 7: 787-810.

Keen, Benjamin. 1971. The Aztec Image in Western Thought. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Keogh, Raymond M. 1986. A Preliminary Model to Determine Forest Cover History of Central America. Forest Ecology and Management 15, no. 2: 95-120.
Mathematical model to determine forest cover changes for Central America from 1650 to 1977. (Note by FHS).

Kepner, Charles David Jr., and Jay Henry Soothill . 1935. The Banana Empire: A case study of economic imperialism. New York: Vanguard.

Kiy, Richard, and John D Wirth. 1998. Environmental management on North America's borders. 1st ed ed. Environmental History Series, no. 14. College Station, Tex: Texas A&M University Press.

Krwiatkowska-Szatzscheide, Teresa. 1997. From the Mexican Chiapas Crisis: A Different Perspective for Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 19, no. 3: 267-89.

Lavín, José Domingo. 1950. Petróleo: pasado, presente y futuro de un industria mexicana. Mexico City: EDAPSA.

Lovell, W. George. 1992. Conquest and Survival in Colonial Guatemala: A Historical Geography of the Cuchumatan Highlands, 1500-1821. Rev. ed. Montréal, Canada: McGill-Queen's University.

MacCamaron, Robert. 1994. Environmental Change in colonial New Mexico. Environmental History Review 18, no. 2: 17-40.

May, Stacy, and Galo Plaza. 1958. The United Fruit Company in Latin America. Washington: National Planning Association.

Melville, Elinor Gordon Ker. 1998. Cultural Persistence and Environmental Change: The Otomi of the Valle del Mezquital, Mexico. In Advances in Historical Ecology. ed. William Balée, 334-48. New York: Columbia University Press.
Attributes the persistence of the indigenous Otomi as a distinct ethnic group in Mexico to the fact that the Otomi continued their traditional agricultural land uses while adopting small-scale pastoralism in the wake of Spanish colonization during the sixteenth century. (Note by FHS).

Melville, Elinor Gordon Ker.  1990. Environmental and Social Change in the Valle del Mezquital, Mexico, 1521-1600. Comparative Studies in Society and History , no. 32: 24-53.

Melville, Elinor Gordon Ker. 1997. Environmental and Social Change in the Valle del Mezquital, Mexico, 1521-1600. In Agriculture, Resource Exploitation, and Environmental Change. Ed. Helen Wheatley, 69-98. Brookfield, VT: Variorum.
Grazing and land degradation. (Note by FHS).

Melville, Elinor Gordon Ker. 1992. The Long-Term Effects of the Introduction of Sheep into Semi-Arid Sub-Tropical Regions. In Changing tropical forests: historical perspectives on today's challenges in Central & South America. Eds. Harold K. Steen, and Richard P. Tucker, 144-53. Durham, NC: Forest History Society.
Case study of Valle del Mezquital, Mexico. During the sixteenth century, the introduction of sheep to the area led to severe environmental degradation. (Note by FHS).

Melville, Elinor Gordon Ker.  1983. "The Pastoral Economy and Environmental Degradation in Highland Central Mexico, 1530-1600." University of Michigan.
Erosion, land use, land tenure, and environmental degradation due to overgrazing by sheep in Mexico's Valle del Mezquital. Ph.D Dissertation (History) (Note by FHS).

Melville, Elinor Gordon Ker.  1994. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reviewed by Abel A. Alves, Ball State University.

Meyer, Lorenzo. 1972. México y los Estados Unidos en el conflicto petrolero, 1917-1942. Mexico City: El Colegio de México.

Meyer, Michael C. 1984. Water in the Hispanic Southwest: a social and legal history, 1550-1850. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Meyer, Michael C., and Michael M. Brescia. 1998. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo as a Living Document: Water and Land-Use Issues in Northern New Mexico. The New Mexico Historical Review 73, no. 4: 321-45.
The article deals with land and water issues in northern New Mexico from the 17th century to 1848. It also touches upon environmental issues that are hotly contested today in New Mexico, specifically grazing and wood-cutting and the material effects that these debates have had on Hispanic farming and pastoral communities. (HLAS).

Michaels, David, Clara Barrera, and Manuel Gachama Gachama. 1985. Occupational Health and the Economic Development of Latin America. The Export of Hazard: Transnational Corporations and Environmental Control Issues. Ed. Jane H. Ives.

Minnich, Richard A., and Yue Hong Chou. 1997. Wildland Fire Patch Dynamics in the Chaparral of Southern California and Northern Baja California. International Journal of Wildland Fire 7: 221-48.
Influence of wildfire on forest vegetation; twentieth century. (HLAS).

Mumme, Stephen P., Richard Bath, and Valerie Assetto. 1988. Political Development and Environmental Policy in Mexico. Latin America Research Review 23, no. 1: 7-34.
Mexican efforts to deal with twin issues of environment and development refute notion that environmental issues cannot gain a place on national policy agendas in Latin America. Using a chronological and comparative approach (three administrations are analyzed: Echeverría, López Portillo, and De la Madrid), authors examine background of current reforms and development of environmenatal policy in order to test some general propositions concerning prospects for relating political development to prospects for dealing with salient environmental issues. (HLAS).

Mundy, Barbara E. 1996. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nations, James. 1994. The Ecology of the Zapatista Revolt. Cultural Survival Quaterly : 31-33.

The Zapatistas and Rainforest of Chiapas, Mexico . 1998. Prod. Native Forest Network, and Eastern North America Resource Center. Container Title: Lacandona, the Zapatistas, and Rainforest of Chiapas, Mexico. Burlingon, VT.
Deforestation of the Lacandona Forest. Explains the relationship of the Zapatistas, the Mexican government, and United States corporations in the demand for resources.

Nigh, Ronald, and Nemesio J. Rodriguez. 1995. Territorios violados: indios, medio ambiente y desarrollo en America Latina. Mexico: Direccion general de publicaciones del Consejo nacional para la cultura y las artes: Instituto nacional indigenista.

Nygren, Anja. 1995. Deforestation in Costa Rica: An Examination of Social and Historical Factors. Forest & Conservation History 39: 27-35.

O'Brien, Karen L. 1998. Sacrificing the Forest: Environmental and Social Struggles in Chiapas. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Deforestation of the Lacandona Forest, Chiapas, Mexico. Social aspects of deforestation.

Offen, Karl H. 2000. British Logwood Extraction from the Mosquitia: The Origin of a Myth. Hispanic American Historical Review 80 , no. 1: 113-35.

Offen, Karl H . 1998. An Historical Geography of Chicle and Tunu Gum Production in Northeastern Nicaragua. Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers 24: 57-74.

Ortiz Monasterio, Fernando, and Isabel Fernández Tijero. 1987. Tierra profanada: historia ambiental de Mexico. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.

Pagden, Anthony . 1993. European Encounters with the New World: From Renaissance to Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Patch, Robert. 1993. Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, 1648-1812. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Peña, Devon Gerardo. 1997. The terror of the machine: technology, work, gender, and ecology on the U.S.-Mexico border . Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.
Reviewed by William Schell, Murray State University.

Pierce, Susan M. 1992. "La Selva Biological Station History: Colonization/Land Use/Deforestation of Sarapiqui, Costa Rica." Colorado State University.
Master's thesis (Forest Sciences)

Pike, Frederick B. 1992. The United States and Latin America: Myths and Stereotypes of Civilization and Nature. 1st ed. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Views, perceptions and stereotypes of Latin Americans and Indians as characterized by U.S. -Latin American Relations and public opinion.

Pohl, Mary DeLand. 1994. The economics and politics of Maya meat eating. In The Economic anthropology of the state. ed. Elizabeth M. BrumfielLanham, MD: University Press of America.

Pohl, Mary DeLand, ed. 1985. Prehistoric Lowland Maya Environment and Subsistence Economy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
Papers on the archaeology of early agriculture in southern Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala, documenting the effects of Mayan civilization on the tropical rainforests and the impacts of the resulting environmental change on Mayan history. (Note by FHS).

Radding, Cynthia. 1997. Wandering peoples: colonialism, ethnic spaces, and ecological frontiers in northwestern Mexico, 1700-1850. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Robert Williams. 1986. Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Salati, Eneas et al. 1990. Amazonia. In The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. Ed. B. L. III TurnerVol. 479-49. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Samper, Mario. 1990. Generations of Settlers: Rural Households and Markets on the Costa Rican Frontier, 1850-1935 . Dellplain Latin American Studies, 26. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Sanders, William T. 1971. Clutural Ecology and Settlement Patterns of the Gulf Coast. In Handbook of Middle American Indians: Archeology of Northern Mesoamerica. Eds. Gordon F. Ekholm, and Ignacio BernalAustin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Schryer, Frans J. 1980. The Rancheros of Pisaflores: The History of a Peasant Bourgeoisie in Twentieth-Century Mexico.

Schwartz, Norman B. 1990. Forest Society: A Social History of Peten, Guatemala. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Seed, Patricia. 1993. Are These Not Also Men? The Indians' Humanism and Capacity for Spanish Civilization. Journal of Latin American Studies 25: 63-652.

Seed, Patricia. 1991. Reconsidering Colonial Discourse for Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Spanish America. Latin American Research Review , no. 26: 181-200.

Sheridan, Thomas E. 1988. Where the Dove Calls: The Political Ecology of a Peasant Corporate Community in Northwestern Mexico. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Simon, Joel. 1997. Endangered Mexico: an environment on the edge. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books.

Simonian, Lane. 1995. Defending the land of the jaguar: a history of conservation in Mexico. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Reviewed by Wim Pelt, freelance science writer.

Sluyter, Andrew. 1998. From Archive to Map to Pastoral Landscape: A Spatial Perspective on the Livestock Ecology of Sixteenth-Century New Spain. Environmental History 3: 508-28.

Sluyter, Andrew. 1999. Ganader'a Española, Despoblamiento Indígena y Cambio de la Vegetación en las Tierras Bajas Tropicales de Veracruz, México, Siglo XVI. Seminario Internacional sobre Historia Ambiental de la Ganader'a en México., Ed. Lucina HernándezDurango, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Durango/ Instituto de Ecología/ Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango/ORSTOM.

Sluyter, Andrew. 1997. Landscape Change and Livestock in Sixteenth-Century New Spain: The Archival Data Base. Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers Yearbook, 27-39.

Smith, Michael E., and Marilyn A. Masson, Eds. 2000. The Ancient Civilizations of Mesoamerica: A Reader. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.
Organization of Mesoamerican society; Economic Organization; Political Organization; Religion and Ideology

Smith, Sheldon. 1994. Ecology and politics in the Puebla Basin of Mexico. In The Economic anthropology of the state. ed. Elizabeth M. BrumfielLanham, MD: University Press of America.

Sonnenfeld, David A. 1992. Mexico's 'Green Revolution,' 1940-1980: Towards an Environmental History. Environmental Review 16, no. 4: 29-52.
Agricultural development and environmental degradation in Mexico. (Note by FHS).

Soustelle, Jacques. 1970. Daily Life of the Aztecs on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest . Translator Patrick O'Brian. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Stonich, Susan. 1993. I am Destroying the Land: The Political Ecology of Poverty and Environmental Destruction in Honduras . Boulder, Co: Westview Press.

Swan, Susan L. 1982. Drought and Mexico's Struggle for Independence. Environmental Review 6, no. 1: 54-62.
Swan argues that sudden economic hardships caused by severe drought conditions from 1808 to 1811 helped foster Mexico's 1810 rebellion against Spanish rule. (Note by FHS).

Tortolero V., Alejandro, Ed. 1996. Tierra, agua y bosques: historia y medio ambiente en el México central. México/Guadalajara, Mexico: Centre français d'études mexicaines et centraméricaines; Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora; Potrerillos Editores; Univ. de Guadalajara.

Truett, Samuel. 1997. Neighbors by Nature: Rethinking Region, Nation, and Environmental History in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands. Environmental History 2: 160-78.
Transnational environmental history of the Arizona-Sonora borderlands; nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (Note by FHS).

Tucker, Richard P, and Norman Myers . 1987. Deforestation in Central America: Spanish Legacy and North American Consumers. Environmental Review 11, no. 1: 55-71.
Examines the impact of land ownership patterns and international trade on deforestation in Central America during the 1970s. (Note by FHS).

Turner, B. L. III. 1990. The Rise and Fall of Population and Agriculture in the Central Maya Lowlands, 300 B.C. to Present. In Hunger in History: Food Shortage, Povery and Deprivation. Editor Lucile F. Newman, 178-212. London: Blackwell.

Uribe, Maruja, and Gladys Soche. 1992. Fuentes de informacion sobre proteccion del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales en America Latina y el Caribe. 1 ed. Bogota, Colombia: El Colegio Verde de Villa de Leyva.

Utting, Peter. 1993. Trees, people, and power: social dimensions of deforestation and forest protection in Central America. London : Earthscan Publications.

Utton, Albert E. 1983. Shared Water Resources in the United States-Mexico Border Region: Past Successes and Future Porblems. In Ecology and development of the border region: Second Symposium of Mexican and United States Universities on Border Studies, Ed. Stanley R. RossMexico, DF: Anuies/Profmex.

Veblen, Thomas. 1975. "The ecological, cultural, historical bases of forest preservation in Totonicapan, Guatemala." University of California.
Ph.D Dissertation (Geography)

Veblen, Thomas. 1978. Forest Preservation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The Geographical Review 68: 427-38.

Wallace, David Rains. 1992. The Quetzal and the Macaw: The Story of Costa Rica's National Parks. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Weaver, Peter L., and Oswaldo A. Sabido. 1997. Mahogany in Belize: A Historical Perspective. Asheville, N.C: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
History of mahogany forests in Belize (British Honduras) since the seventeenth century. Includes discussion of forest cover, hurricane damage, silviculture, timber harvesting, forest conservation, and forestry research. (Note by FHS).

Whitaker, Arthur P. 1971. Changing and Unchanging Interpretations of the Enlightenment in Spanish America. In The Ibero-American Enlightenment., 21-57. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Whiteford, Scott, and Anne E. Ferguson. 1991. Harvest of Want: Hunger and Food Security in Central America and Mexico.

Williams, Jerry M., and Robert Lewis, ed. 1993. Early Images of the Americas. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Wirth, John D. 1985. Latin American oil companies and the politics of energy. Latin American Studies Series. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Wirth, John D. 2000. Smelter Smoke in North America, The Politics of Transborder Pollution. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas.

Woodward, Laura L., and Jr. Ralph Lee Woodward. 1985. Trudi Blom and the Lacandon Rain Forest. Environmental Review 9, no. 3: 226-36.
Covers the efforts by Blom to preserve the integrity of the rain forest of southeastern Mexico and the Maya Indians living there following World War II. (Note by FHS).