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General Editor:
Lise Sedrez
Stanford University

Advisory Board:
John Wirth
Stanford University
(in memorian)

José Drummond
PPG-7

Brazil

Environmental History of Latin America

Lise Sedrez

Abreu, Maurício de Almeida . 1992. A Cidade, a Montanha e a Floresta. In Natureza e Sociedade no Rio de Janeiro. Ed. Maurício de Almeida Abreu, 54-103. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro/Secretaria Municipal de Cultura, Turismo e Esportes.

Abreu, Maurício de Almeida, Ed. 1992. Natureza e Sociedade no Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro/Secretaria Municipal de Cultura, Turismo e Esportes.

Almeida, R. S., and M. A. C. Ribeiro. 1993. Algumas Questões Sobre a Industrialização Brasileira e Seus Impactos Ambientais em Dois Espaços Macro-Regionais. In Geografia e questão ambiental. Eds. Olindina Vianna Mesquita, and Solange Tietzmann Silva, 49-83. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística- IBGE.

Amador, Elmo da Silva. 1997. Baía de Guanabara e Ecossistemas Periféricos: Homem e Natureza. Rio de Janeiro: E.S. Amador.

Ames, Barry, and Margaret E. Keck. 1997. The politics of sustainable development: environmental policy making in four Brazilian states. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 39, no. 4: 1-40.
The political factors, which influence environmental policy making, were examined in the four Brazilian states of Parana, Mato Grosso, Rondonia and Pemambuco through over 60 interviews conducted in these states between Jun 1992 and Aug 1993. (AA)

Barbosa, Lívia, Ana Lúcia Lobato, and José Augusto Drummond , Eds. 1992. Garimpo, meio ambiente e sociedades indígenas. Rio de Janeiro/Niterói, Brazil: CETEM, Centro de Tecnologia Mineral/EDUFF, Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal Fluminense.

Barbosa, Luiz C. 1993. The "Greening" of the Ecopolitics of the World-System: Amazonia and Changes in the Ecopolitics of Brazil. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 21, no. 1: 107-34.
Changes in the ecopolitics of the Brazilian government in the 1980's and early 1990's have been a result of a "greening" of the ecopolitics of the world system. (AA)

Barbosa, Luiz C. 1993. The World System and the Destruction of the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest. Review 16, no. 2: 215-40.

Barham, Bradford L., and Oliver T. Coomes. 1996. The Amazon Rubber Boom and Distorted Development. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Bell, Stephen. 1988. Campanha Gaúcha: A Brazilian ranching system, 1850-1820. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Brannstrom, Christian. 1997. Brazilian county-level juridical documents as sources for historical geography: a case study from western São Paulo State. Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers 23: 41-50.

Brannstrom, Christian.  2002. Rethinking the 'Atlantic Forest' of Brazil: New evidence for land cover and land value in Western São Paulo, 1900-1930. Journal of Historical Geography.(forthcoming)

Browder, John O., and Brian J. Godfrey. 1997. Rainforest cities: urbanization, development, and globalization of the Brazilian Amazon. New York: Columbia University Press.
Reviewed by Stuart McCook, The College of New Jersey.
http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=30462887317605

Brown, Larissa V. 1986. "Internal Commerce in a Colonial Society: Rio de Janeiro and its Hinterland, 1790-1822." University of Virginia.

Brown, Larissa V. 1992. Urban Growth, Economic Expansion, and Deforestation in Late Colonial Rio de Janeiro. In Changing tropical forests: historical perspectives on today's challenges in Central & South America. Eds. Harold K. Steen, and Richard P. TuckerDurham, NC: Forest History Society.

Carvalho, José Murilo . 1998. O motivo edênico no imaginário social brasileiro. Ciências Sociais 13, no. 38: 63-81.

Castro, Josué de. 1965. Geografia da fome; o dilema brasileiro: pão ou aço. 2nd rev. ed. São Paulo: Editôra Brasilense.
Includes maps of dietary regions, soils, and diseases in Brazil. (HLAS)

Conklin, B., and L. Graham . 1995. The shifting middle ground: Amazon Indians and eco-politics. American Anthropologist , no. 97: 695-710.

Corrêa, Dora Shellard. 1999. Os índios e a paisagem em Sérgio Buarque de Holanda e Caio Prado Júnior. Revista Unifieo 1, no. 2: 211-22.

Cowell, Adrian, and Michael Kirk. 1990. The Killing of Chico Mendes. Producer Roger James. Director Adrian Cowell. 55 min. Oley, PA: Bullfrog Films.
About Chico Mendes, leader of the rubber-tappers, who sacrificed his life in his fight to preserve the forest. (AA)

Crespo, Samyra. 1995. Verdes que Amadurecem: Os Desafios da Especialização e da Profissionalização das Organizações e Militantes no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins.

Davidson, David M. 1973. How the Brazilian West Was Won: Freelance and State on the Mato Grosso Frontier, 1737-1752. In Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil. Ed. Dauril AldenBerkeley: University of California Press.

Davis, Mike. 2001. Late Victorian holocausts : El Nino famines and the making of the third world. London ; New York: Verso.
Examining a series of droughts and the famines that they spawned in the last third of the 19th century, this text analyses this human tragedy. It covers its global history and lasting impacts on world economic development.

Dean, Warren. 1987. Brazil and the Struggle for Rubber: a study in environmental history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dean studies the domestication of the Hevea brasiliensis, the most famous tree of the mature, lowland stretches of Amazonian tropical rain forests. It is one of the last floral species submitted to extensive and commercially successful manipulation by mankind. Unlike other more important plants for humankind, this latter day process left numerous documented traces, in Brazil and in many other places. Dean tracks down many of these sources and combines the natural history of the tree with the economic and social history of its domestication. If we could have the same documented natural and social history of, say, wheat, rice and corn, we would know much more about basic interactions between humans and their natural environments (JD)

Dean, Warren. 1983. Deforestation in Southeastern Brazil. In Global Deforestation in the Nineteenth-Century World Economy. Eds. John F. Richards, and Richard P. Tucker, 50-67. Durham: Duke University Press.

Dean, Warren. 1983. Ecological and Economic Relationships in Frontier History: São Paulo, Brazil. In Essays on Frontiers in World History. Eds. George Wolfskill, and Stanley Palmer, 71-100. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press.

Dean, Warren . 1985. Forest Conservation in Southeastern Brazil, 1900 to 1955. Environmental Review 9, no. 1: 55-69.

Dean, Warren. 1984. Indigenous Populations of the São Paulo-Rio de Janeiro Coast: Trade, Aldeamento, Slavery and Extinction. Revista De História , no. 117: 3-26.
São Paulo

Dean, Warren.  1976. Rio Claro: A Brazilian Plantation System, 1820-1920. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Dean, Warren.  1997. With Broadax and Firebrand: The destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA; London: University of California Press.
Reviewed by Robert M. Levine, University of Miami.
http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=32550851301996

Delson, Roberta M., and John Dickenson. 1984. Conservation Tendencies in Colonial and Imperial Brazil: An Alternative Perspective on Human Relations to the Land. Environmental Review 8, no. 3: 270-83.
Surveys governmental attempts to regulate the exploitation of Brazilian natural resources, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (AA).

Delson, Roberta M., and John Dickenson. 1984. Interpreting the Brazilian Landscape: Conflicts, Contradictions and Counterbalances. Journal of Latin American Studies 16: 101-25.

Diégues, A. C. 1996. O Mito do Paraíso Desabitado: As Áreas Naturais Desprotegidas. In Incertezas de Sustentabilidade na Globalização. Eds. Eduardo J. Viola, and Lúcia da Costa FerreiraCampinas, Brazil: Unicamp.

Drummond, José Augusto. 1997. Devastação e Preservação Ambiental no Rio de Janeiro. Niterói, Brazil: Editora da Universidade Federal Fluminense.

Drummond, José Augusto. 1996. The Garden in the Machine: An Environmental History of Brazil's Tijuca Forest. Environmental History 1, no. 1: 83-104.

Drummond, José Augusto. 1988. "National Parks in Brazil: A Study of 50 Years of Environmental Policy (with case studies of the National Parks in the staqte of Rio de Janeiro)." The Evergreen State College.

Drummond, José Augusto. 1997. O Sistema Brasileiro de Parques Nacionais - Uma Análise dos resultados de uma Política Ambiental. Niterói, Brazil: Editora da Universidade Federal Fluminense.

Drummond, José Augusto . 1997. A Visão Conservacionista (1920 a 1970). In O Ambientalistmo no Brasil: passado, presente e futuro. Editors Enrique Svirsky, and João Paulo R. Capobianco, 19-28. São Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Socioambiente/Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo.

Ewan, Joseph . 1992. Through the jungle of Amazon Travel narratives of naturalists. Archives of Natural History 19: 185-207.

Fearnside, Philip M. 1986. Human Carrying Capacity of the Brazilian Rainforest. New York: Columbia University Press.
Analyzes the recent history of Amazonian colonization attempts and uses computer models to estimate the maximum population that the region could sustain without major environmental damage. (Note by FHS).

Ferreira, Lúcia da Costa. 1996. Os Ambientalistas, os Direitos Sociais e o Universo da Cidadania. In Incertezas de Sustentabilidade na Globalização. Eds. Eduardo J. Viola, and Lúcia da Costa Ferreira, 15-65. Campinas, Brazil: Unicamp.

Foladori, G, and H Tommasino. 1998. Desarrollo intensivo en la agricultura paranaense: La sustentabilidad socioambiental jaqueada. Revista Mediações 3, no. 2.
A review on the evolution of agriculture in Paraná, Brazil, from 1970 to 1995, and the impacts on sustainability.

Foresta, Ronald A. 1991. Amazon Conservation in the Age of Development: The Limits of Providence. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press.
Political, social, and scientific assessment of conservation programs in the Brazilian rainforests, since the 1970s. (Note by FHS).

Foweraker, Joe. 1981. The struggle for land: a political economy of the pioneer frontier in Brazil from 1930 to the present day. Cambridge [Eng.]/New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fraga, M. V. G. 1960. A questão florestal ao tempo do Brasil-Colônia. Anuario Brasileiro De Economia Florestal 3: 93.

Freyre, Gilberto. 1937. Nordeste, aspectos da influencia da canna sobre a vida e a paizagem do nordeste do Brasil. Colecao Documentos Brasileiros, Dirigida Por Gilberto Freyre. 4. Rio de Janeiro: J. Olympio.

Furtado, Celso. 1963. Formação Econômica do Brasil. Translators Ricardo W. Aguiar, and Eric Charles Drysdale. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Grossman, Lawrence S. 1997. Soil Conservation, Political Ecology, and Technological Change on Saint Vincent. Geographical Review 87: 353-74.
Dscusses the history of soil erosion problems and the history of colonial soil conservation policies on the island. (N.A.)

Hall, Anthony L. 1989. Developing Amazonia: Deforestation and Social Conflict in Brazil's Carajas Programme. New York: Manchester University Press.
Study about the environmental and social impacts of industrial development in Carajas, Brazil. Twentieth century. (Note by FHS).

Hall, Anthony L. 1978. Drought and Irrigation in NortheEast Brazil. New York/ London: Cambridge University Press.
The basic thesis of Hall's succinct book is quite simple: the "drought problem" of Northeastern Brazil is not a climatic problem, but rather an institutional one. In the presentation of this thesis, Hall uses a combination of historical evidence, field notes, and personal observation to paint a picture of poverty in the sertão. His analysis shows the problem as the result of the socioeconomic conditions in the northeast which have developed since colonial times, survived through several political mechanisms, and are apparently destined to continue. (Review from Environmental Review, Bibliographic Supplement III 1979-80).

Hall, Anthony L. 1997. Sustaining Amazonia: Grassroots Action for Productive Conservation. New York: Manchester University Press.

Hecht, Susan, and A. Cockburn. 1990. The fate of the forest: Developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. New York: Harper Perennial.

Herculano, Selene . 1996. O Campo do Ecologismo no Brasil: O Fórum das ONGs. Política e Cultura: Visões do Passo e Perspectivas Contemporâneas. Elisa Reis, 91-126. São Paulo, Brazil: Hucitec-ANPOCS.

Heynemann, Cláudia B. 1995. A Floresta da Tijuca: Natureza e Civilização - Século XIX. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio (Biblioteca Carioca).

Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. 1985. Visão do Paraíso - Os Motivos Edênicos no Descobrimento e na Colonização do Brazil. 4th ed. São Paulo, Brazil: Nacional.

Hurrell, Andrew . 1992. Brazil and the international politics of Amazon deforestation. In The international politics of the environment: actors, interests, and institutions. Eds. Andrew Hurrell, and B. Kingbury, 396-420. Oxford, England: Claredon Press.

Jobim, Anisio. 1934. Panoramas Amazonicos: Codajas. Revista Do Instituto Geographico e Historico Do Amazonas 4, no. 1 & 2: 3-28.
Natural history of the municipality of Codajas, Brazil, from the 1800s to the early 1900s. Text in Portuguese. (Note by FHS).

Keck, Margaret E. 1995. Parks, people and power: the shifting terrain of environmentalism. NACLA Report on the Americas 285: 36-42..

Keck, Margaret E. 1995. Social equity and environmental politics in Brazil: lessons from the rubber tappers of Acre. Comparative Politics 27, no. 4: 409-24.

Kengen, Sebastiao . 1992. Forest Management in Brazil: A Historical Persepective. Changing tropical forests: historical perspectives on today's challenges in Central & South America. eds. Harold K. Steen, and Richard P. Tucker, 165-75. Durham, NC: Forest History Society.

Kolk, Ans. 1996. Forest in international environmental politics: International organizations, NGOs and the Brazilian Amazon. Utrecht, Netherlands: International Books.

Kottak, Conrad Phillip. 1992. Assault on Paradise: social change in a Brazilian village. 2 ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Leis, Hector R., Eduardo J. Viola, and Lúcia da Costa Ferreira . 1997. Confronto e Legitimação (1970 a 1990). In O Ambientalistmo no Brasil: passado, presente e futuro. Eds. Enrique Svirsky, and João Paulo R. Capobianco, 27-50. São Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Socioambiente/Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo.

Léna, Philippe, and Adélia Engrácia Oliveira, Eds. 1991. Amazônia: a fronteira agrícola 20 anos depois. Coleção Eduardo Galvão. Belém, Brazil/France: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi/ORSTOM.
Results of seminar cover wide range of topics on frontier expansion and development. Includes indigenous peoples, the military, religious groups, agricultural colonization, land conflicts, deforestation and other environmental issues, economics, and Carajás. (HLAS).

Lima, Edvaldo Pereira, Ed. 1994. Retratos da baía. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: FAPERJ.
Interesting and unique collection of texts produced by Brazilian professional journalists during a workshop dedicated to develop writing skills about environmental issues. The beautiful and highly polluted Guanabara Bay, around which grows the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, was the theme of the workshop and all texts are focused on issues directly or indirectly related to the environmental quality of the waters of the bay. (JD)

Losada, Janaina Zito. 1998. "Desejos e Melancolias: Uma História da Idéia de Natureza no Brasil, 1839-1870." Universidade Federal de Petrópolis.

Mahar, Dennis J. 1989. Deforestation in Brazil's Amazon Region: Magnitude, Rate, and Causes. In Environmental Management and Economic Development. Eds. Gunter. Schramm, and Jeremy J. WarfordBaltimore, MD: World Bank /Johns Hopkins University Press.

Maia, Raymundo Ottoni de Castro. 1966. A Floresta da Tijuca. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Centro de Conservaçào da Natureza.

Maligo, Pedro. 1998. Land of metaphorical desires: the representation of Amazonia in Brazilian literature. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

McNeill, John R. 1986. Agriculture, Forests, and Ecological History: Brazil, 1500-1984. Environmental Review 10: 122-33.
Argues that changes in land use linked to the profit motive have led to environmental degradation and economic collapse. (Note by FHS).

McNeill, John R. 1988. The Decline and Precipitous Fall of Paraná Pine, 1900-1983. In World deforestation in the twentieth century. Eds. John F. Richards, and Richard P. TuckerDurham: Duke University Press.

Menegat, Rualdo, Coordenador Geral. 1998. Atlas Ambiental de Porto Alegre. Cordenadores Adjuntos Maria Luiza Porto, Clovis Carlos Carraro, and Luís Alberto Dávila Fernandes. Porto Alegre, Brazil: Editora da Universidade.

Miller, Shawn W. 2000. Fruitless Trees: Portuguese Conservation and Brazil's Colonial Timber. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Miller, Shawn W. 1997. Fuelwood in Colonial Brazil: The Economic Consequences of Fuel Depletion for the Bahian Reconcavo, 1549-1820. In Agriculture, Resource Exploitation, and Environmental Change. ed. Helen Wheatley, 135-59. Brookfield, VT: Variorum.
The use of fuelwood in Brazilian sugar mills. (HLAS).

Monbeig, Pierre. 1952. Pionniers et planteurs de São Paulo. Paris: A. Colin.

Morton, F. W. O. 1978. The royal timber in late colonial Bahia. Hispanic American Historical Review 58, no. 1: 41-61.
Floral conservation attempts in southern Bahia during the late colonial period are reviewed. The methods of timber exploitation during the period serve to illustrate how the current "development versus conservation" theme was already being manifested. (HLAS).

Onis, Juan de. 1992. The green cathedral: sustainable development of Amazonia. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
Author, a former correspondent for The New York Times, discusses often conflicting perspectives of First World environmentalists and Amazon residents on ways to approach the goal of sustainable development. Drawing on visits to the Brazilian Amazon over a 20-year period, he calls for establishment of a macro-ecological framework through which micro-ecological actions become the elements of sustainable economic growth and a reasonable ecological balance. (HLAS).

Pádua, José Augusto. 1997. Biosphere, History and Conjuncture in the Analysis of the Amazon Problem. Michael R. Redclift, and Graham WoodgateCheltenham, UK/Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Pádua, José Augusto. 1997. "A Degradação do Berço Esplêndido: Um estudo sobre a tradição original da ecologia política brasileira, 1786-1888." Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro/IUPERJ.
Ph. D. Dissertation (Political Science).
Pioneering, well-researched and skillfully written investigation about the ´founding fathers´ of Brazilian conservation. Padua explores the environmental texts (published or unpublished) and the usually little-lnown environmental concerns of famous Brazilian writers known as politicians (Jose Bonifácio), slavery reformers (Joaquim Nabuco), essayists (Euclides da Cunha and Alberto Torres) or engineers (André Rebouças), analyzing them in their own times and in the context of modern conservation thought. (JD)

Pádua, José Augusto, Ed. 1987. Ecologia e Política no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Espaço e Tempo.

Pádua, José Augusto. 1997. Natureza e Projeto Nacional: nascimento do ambientalismo brasileiro. In O Ambientalistmo no Brasil: passado, presente e futuro. Editors Enrique Svirsky, and João Paulo R. Capobianco, 13-18. São Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Socioambiente/Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo.

Pádua, José Augusto. 1991. O nascimento da política verde no Brazil: fatores exógenos e endógenos. In Ecologia e Política Mundial. ed. Hector R. Leis, 135-62. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: FASE/Vozes/AIRI/PUC-Rio.

Paes De Almeida, Jozimar. 1999. A agroindústria do açúcar e álcool e a Eco-História: A extinção do Arco-íris. História e Meio-Ambiente: O Impacto Da Expansão Européia. Ed. Alberto Vieira, 423-38. Funchal, Portugal: Centro de Estudos de Historia do Atlantico.

Paula, R. C. de . 1972. A Rodovia Belém-Brasilia e os fazedores de desertos. A Amazônia Brasileira Em Foco 6: 78-95.

Paula, Zueleide Casagrande d . 1998. "Maringá: O coração verde do Brasil?" UNESP-Assis.

Pizzi, Paulo, Editor. 1996. ECOLISTA Cadastro nacional de instituições ambientalistas. Revised ed. Curitiba, Brazil: MaterNatura/ISER/WWF.

Richards, John F., and Richard P. Tucker, Eds. 1983. Global Deforestation in the Nineteenth-Century World Economy. Durham: Duke University Press.

Russell-Wood, A. J. R. 1977. Technology and Society: The Impact of Gold Mining on the Institution of Slavery in Portuguese America. The Journal of Economic History 37: 59-83.
Gold was discovered in Rio das Velhas region in the 1690's and the slave population increased steadily until mining declined in the late 1730's. (Review from Environmental Review, Bibliographic Supplement III 1979-80)

São Paulo (Estado). Secretaria do Meio Ambiente. 1999. A água no olhar da história. Ed. Dora Shellard, and Zuleika M. F. Alvim. São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente.

Schmitt, C. J. 1995. Organizações Ambientalistas e Conflitos Sócio-Ambientais no Rio Grande do Sul. Conflitos Sócio-Ambientais no Brasil. Isabel Carvalho, and Gabriella Scotto, 86-101. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IBASE.

Schwartzman, Stephan. 1991. Deforestation and Popular Resistance in Acre: From Local Social Movement to Global Network. Centennial Review 35, no. 2: 397-422.

Sedrez, Lise Fernanda . 1999. "Last Projects." Web page, [accessed 24 July 1999]. Available at http://www.delpiano.com/lise/project.htm.

Sedrez, Lise Fernanda. 1998. "A Meeting of Minds: Coalitions, Representations and American Non-governmental Organizations in the Brazilian Amazon." New Jersey Institute of Technology.
Master's thesis (Environmental Policy Studies).

Slater, Candace. 1993. Amazonia as edenic narrative. In The uncommon ground: Toward reinventing Nature. Editor William Cronon, 114-31. New York: W.W. Norton.

Slatta, Richard W. 1983. Gauchos and the vanishing frontier. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Smith, Miranda. 1989. Voice of the Amazon. Better World Society. 57 min. New York: Cinema Guild.
Through interviews and documentary footage, examines the grass-roots environmental movement in Brazil. Focuses on Chico Mendes, a rubbertapper and environmentalist who was assassinated in 1988 for his role in trying to protect the rainforest from over-exploitation. (AA).

Smith, R. C. 1949. The wood-beach at Recife: a contribution to the economic history of Brazil. The Americas 6: 215-33.

Soffiati, Arthur. 1995. Meio Ambiente e Movimentos Sociais no Norte-Noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Falas , 1. Campos dos Goitacases, Brazil: Universidade Federal Fluminense/Departamento de Serviço Social de Campos.

Stein, Stanley. 1957. Vassouras: A Brazilian Coffee County, 1850-1900. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Torres, Alberto. 1990. As fontes da vida no Brasil. 2nd . Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Instituto de Documentação, Editora da Fundação Getulio Vargas.

Vieira, Alberto, Ed. 1999. História e Meio-Ambiente: O Impacto Da Expansão Européia. Funchal, Portugal: Centro de Estudos de Historia do Atlantico.

Viola, Eduardo J. 1988. The Ecologist Movement in Brazil (1974-1986): From Environmentalism to Ecopolitics. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 12: 211-28.

Viola, Eduardo J. 1996. A Multidimensionalidade da Globalização, as Novas Forças Sociais Transnacionais e Seu Impacto na Política Ambiental no Brasil (1989-1995). In Incertezas de Sustentabilidade na Globalização. Eds. Eduardo J. Viola, and Lúcia da Costa Ferreira, 15-65. Campinas, Brazil: Unicamp.

Wainer, A. H. 1991. Legislação Ambiental Brasileira: Subsídios para a História do Direito Ambiental. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Forense.

Wainer, Ann Helen. 1999. Legislação Ambiental Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Forense.

Waldman, Maurício. 1992. Ecologia e lutas sociais no Brasil. S. Paulo, Brazil: Editora Contexto.

Weinstein, Barbara. 1983. The Amazon Rubber Boom, 1850-1920. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Wilcox, Robert . 1992. Cattle and Environment in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil, 1870-1970. Agricultural History 66: 232-56.
Studies the relationship between cattle ranching and deforestation, erosion, and atmospheric pollution. (HLAS).

Wood, Charles H., and Marianne Schmink. 1993. The Military and the Environment in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Political and Military Sociology 21, no. 1: 81-105.

Zebich-Knoz, Michele. 1994. Tropical Rainforest Policy in Brasil and Costa Rica: Has a Lesson Been Learned? Journal of the Third World Spectrum 1, no. 2: 91-104.
Analyzes the problems of tropical deforestation by a comparative analysis of postwar rainforest policies in Brazil and Costa Rica and evaluates the impact of environmental destruction for short-term economic gain, utilizing Richard Rose's methodology for assessing long-range consequences from his Lesson-Drawing in Public Policy (1993). (Note by FHS).