CAT SCRATCH DISEASE
Guidance for Personnel Working with Cats at Stanford University
What is cat scratch disease?
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. The occurrence of CSD is most strongly associated with owning a kitten (1 year or younger), being licked on the face, scratched, or bitten by a kitten, and owning a kitten with fleas.
How is CSD spread?
It has been suggested that fleas play a role in cat to cat transmission, but not in cat to human transmission. As the name suggests, humans contract CSD after being scratched or (less commonly) bitten by an infected cat or kitten. CSD cannot be transmitted from person to person.
Who is at risk for infection?
The majority of individuals who contract CSD are under the age of 17, and are usually under the age of 12. People with compromised immune systems, such as AIDS and cancer patients, are most at risk and can become most seriously ill if infected with Bordetella.
Is CSD infection serious?
In a small number of cases, almost all involving individuals with compromised immune systems, CSD can cause tonsillitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, and other serious illnesses.
How can I protect myself and the cats in my facility?
- Control of flea infestation may reduce the number of insects capable of transmitting B. henselae from cat to cat, and that in turn will reduce the feline reservoir from which humans can become infected.
- Gloves, shoe covers and long sleeved apparel should be worn at all times when working with cats.
- People at risk should avoid rough play that may lead to cat scratches. Wash any scratches immediately.
- If a new cat is brought in, a mature cat rather than a kitten is preferred.
What are the signs of CSD infection?
Typically, a small skin lesion (resembling an insect bite) develops at the site of a cat scratch or a bite, followed within two weeks by swollen lymph nodes and sometimes a fever. The illness is mild and self-limiting in the majority of patients, although it may take some months for the swollen lymph nodes to return to normal.
What do I do if an exposure or injury occurs?
Exposure to aerosols, bites or scratches involving animals or injuries from objects contaminated with body fluids from animals require immediate first aid and medical attention. Notify your supervisor! Then, between the hours of 8:00 am and 5:00 pm., call or proceed to Stanford Occupational Health Clinic; 480 Oak Road, Rm B15; 5-5308. After 5:00 pm and before 8:00 am., call or proceed to the Stanford Emergency Room, H126 (in the hospital, next to the cafeteria), 723-2670.
Call the Laboratory Animal Occupational Health Surveillance Program's Health Provider:
Stanford University Occupational Health Center
Veterinary Service Center
or Stanford Environmental Health & Safety
This document provided by:
Laboratory Animal Occupational Health Surveillance Program
Department of Environmental Health and Safety
For more information, or to make comments on this page, please contact the EH&S Biosafety Officer: firstname.lastname@example.org
Last modified: Tuesday, April 27, 2010