References

Cheng, T.C. (1986) General Parasitology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc. pp. 770-772.

Hobmaier, A., M. Hobmaier (1940) On the life-cycle of Linguatula rhinaria American Journal of Tropical Medicine. 20:199-210.

John, D.T., W.A. Petri Jr. (2006) Medical Parasitology, 9th ed. Elsevier, Inc. pp. 14, 336-337.

Lazo, R.F., E. Hidalgo, J.E. Lazo, A. Bermeo, M. Llaguno, J. Murillo, V.P.A. Teixeira (1999) Ocular Linguatuliasis in Ecuador: Case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 60(3):405-409.

Ma, K.C., M.H. Oiu, Y.L. Rong (2002) Pathological differentiation of suspected cases of pentastomiasis in China. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 7(2):166-177.

Martin, J.W., G.E. Davis (2001) An updated classification of the recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Mehlhorn, H. (2004) Encyclopedic Reference of Parasitology, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag Heidelberg.

Meshgi, B., O. Asgarian (2003) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata infestation in stray dogs of Shahrekord, Iran. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 50:466-467.

Nobel, E.R., G.A. Nobel (1982) Parasitology: The Biology of Animal Parasites, 5th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. pp. 389-394.

Riley, J., D.M. Spratt, P.J.A. Presidente (1985) Pentastomids (Arthropoda) parasitic in Australian reptiles and mammals. Australian Journal of Zoology. 33:39-53.

Sambon, L. (1922) A synopsis of the family Linguatulidae. Journal of Tropical Medicine. 25:188-206, 391-428.

Siavashi, M.R., M. Assmar, A. Vatankhah (2002) Nasopharyngeal pentastomiasis (Halzoun): report of 3 cases. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 27(4):191-192.

Useful Links
Figure References

Figure 1. Linguatula serrata.

Figure 2. An early sketch of Linguatula serrata showing its distinctive characteristics: (a) anterior extremity; (b) posterior extremity; (i) intestine; (v) utero-vagina (Sambon, 1922).

Figure 3. Linguatula serrata nymph spines. The arrow designates the ring measurement; the arrowhead designates the spine measurement. Bar = 60.2 microns (adapted from Lazo et al., 1999).

Figure 4. Schematic drawing of the mouth and four hooks on the anterior extremity of nymphal Linguatula serrata (Ma et al., 2002).

Figure 5. "Life cycle of Linguatula serrata (1) Adults live in the nose of dogs (and rarely of man). (2) Embryonated eggs are set free via nasal mucus and/or feces. The thin outer is left out in drawings, since it disappears soon. (3) If intermediate hosts swallow eggs, the four-legged primary larva hatches and migrates via blood vessels to the inner organs. Humans may also become accidental intermediate hosts. (4-11) Larval stages 211 are included in a capsule of host origin and grow after molts. When final hosts ingest raw (or uncooked) meat of intermediate hosts, the adult stages develop inside the nasal tract. Infected humans suffer from the AN, annuli; B, EX, extremity with a claw; MK, mouth hooks; IN, intestine; LA, primary larva; M, mouth; SH, inner eggshell; TH, thorns" (Mehlhorn, 2004).

Figure 6. Photograph of ocular linguatulosis. The arrow shows the Linguatula serrata larva (Lazo et al., 1999).

Figure 7. Schematic drawings of various linguatulid hooks (adapted from Sambon, 1922).

Scott Ritter © 2006