CLINICAL PRESENTATION IN HUMANS:

  • Infection is often asymptomatic

  • Anemia (microcytic hypochromic type) due to intestinal blood loss, if malnourished

  • “Ground itch,” an allergic skin reaction, upon penetration of skin by filariform (L3) larvae (more common with N. americanus)

  • Pneumonitis, Eosinophilia possible (during migration of larvae)

  • Cardiac complications

  • Gastro-intestinal distress including flatulence, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

  • Blood loss and gastrointestinal hemorrhage possible in chronic cases. Blood loss can lead to hypoproteinemia, which manifests as facial and peripheral edema

  • In children, severe cases may stunt growth and mental development