and Country Information
endemic in the Far East and Southeast Asia.
Affected countries include Indonesia, Philippines, China, Malaysia,
Singapore, Korea, Japan, Thailand, and India.
human echinostomiasis occurs with an average prevalence of 1% (Carney, 1991).
In the Philippines, it occurs at a prevalence of 3% but can reach up to 44% in
some areas (Eduardo, 1991). The prevalence of human infections varied from 11%
to 65% in Taiwan, while in China, an average prevalence of 5% was reported from
the Fujian and Guangdong provinces (Carney, 1991; Li, 1991). In one part of Korea, human infection was at
22.4% while in another region, it was at 9% (Graczyk and Fried, 1998). More than 50% of stool samples collected in
Northern Thailand tested positive for echinostome eggs.
There is evidence that the disease is underreported and is
most prevalent in remote rural places among the poor and women of child-bearing
age (Graczyk and Fried; Li). The
disease is also aggravated by other factors such as malnutrition, poverty, poor
sanitation, and declining economic conditions (Graczyk and Fried, 1998).