Epidemiology

Animal Infection: A. caninum is the most common hookworm of dogs and cats in the northern hemisphere, whereas A. braziliense is the most common hookworm of dogs and cats in the tropics.

According to the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, less than 1% of all cats and dogs in the U.S. are infected with hookworms; however, in tropical regions of developing countries A. braziliense is thought to infect most dogs.

Human Infection: Children (who play in sand boxes frequented by dogs and cats), utility workers (e.g. Electricians, plumbers, and other workers who crawl beneath raised buildings where pets defecate), and vacationers in tropical locations (who sunbathe by lying on moist, sandy beaches) are especially prone to CLM. Generally beware of sandy, moist, soil, and free-roaming dogs and cats.

Exact numbers of CLM are unknown due to common misdiagnosis. Statistics from individual studies of travel clinics range from 6.7% to 25% of foreign travellers.

According to one study, CLM is rated second to pinworm among helminth infections in developed countries.

 

Country Information

CLM is reported worldwide, but is predominantly found in tropical zones. Most cases are reported from Africa, the Caribbean, South-East Asia, and Central and South America.

CLM is also endemic to the United States. It is primarily found in the Gulf states, but cases have been reported from both Eastern and Southern coastal areas all the way from New Jersey to Texas. The highest incidence of cutaneous larva migrans in the United States can be found in Florida.