Chapter 4 of the course reader does a great job explaining how C++ programs get compiled into a single executable.
Chapter 3 of the course reader covers streams in detail.
Chapter 5 explains the purpose and usage of sequence containers in the STL.
The STL iterators are covered by Chapter 6 in the course reader.
Chapter 7 covers the usage and reasoning behind STL algorithms in a good amount of detail.
This site offers a lovely explanation of function templates. The course reader doesn't have a section explicitly devoted to function templates.
Check out Boost's website for detailed information about its libraries, as well as instructions for downloading Boost.
Chapter 8 covers the basic implementation of our own classes.
Class templates are covered in Chapter 9 in the course reader.
There are no new readings, though const gets discussed a bit in Chapter 9 in the course reader.